Communication, Veterinary–Client–Patient Relationship, and TeledentistryCommunication is the basis of any relationship. Communication can help strengthen the relationship between veterinarians, their clients, and their colleagues throughout the profession. Different models of communication have been demonstrated including the directive model, consumerism model, and relationship-centered model. When veterinarians refer to a specialist, they view the referral as an extension of the care they provide. Therefore, developing a relationship with the specialist is an important facet of patient care. Creating an appropriate veterinary–client–patient relationship (VCPR) helps the patient receive the best care possible. This needs to be considered when offering telemedicine or teledentistry to clients or referring veterinarians.
Diagnostic Imaging of Oral and Maxillofacial Anatomy and PathologyThis article describes the technical principles and indications for the most often encountered diagnostic imaging modalities in veterinary dentistry and oral surgery; with extensive coverage of intraoral (and extraoral) dental radiographic imaging and interpretation through detailed example figures of common dental and maxillofacial diseases in the dog and cat. Multidetector/multislice computed tomography (MDCT/MSCT) and emergent technologies such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) are presented here in detail. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diagnostic ultrasound, which are used less frequently, are briefly discussed.
Oral Microbiome in Dogs and Cats: Dysbiosis and the Utility of Antimicrobial Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal DiseaseAdvances in gene sequence technology and data analysis have enabled the detection and taxonomic identification of microorganisms in vivo based on their unique RNA or DNA sequences. Standard culture techniques can only detect those organisms that readily grow on artificial media in vitro. Culture-independent technology has been used to provide a more accurate assessment of the richness (total number of species) and diversity (relative abundance of each species) of microorganisms present in a prescribed location. The microbiome has been defined as the genes and genomes of all microbial inhabitants within a defined environment. Microorganisms within a microbiome interact with each other as well as with the host. A microbiome is dynamic and may change over time as conditions within the defined environment become altered. In oral health, neither gingivitis nor periodontitis is present, and the host and microbiome coexist symbiotically without evoking an inflammatory response. The circumstances that cause a shift from immune tolerance to a proinflammatory response remain unknown, and a unified, all-encompassing hypothesis to explain how and why periodontal disease develops has yet to be described. The purpose of this review is to clarify the current understanding of the role played by the oral microbiome in dogs and cats, describe how the microbiome changes in periodontal disease, and offer guidance on the utility of systemic antimicrobial agents in the treatment of periodontitis in companion animals.
Designing and Equipping a Modern Dentistry and Oral Surgery SuiteVeterinary practices should consider designing and equipping a dedicated space to provide companion animal dental and oral surgical care. A single or multi-table dental suite design will allow organized and efficient delivery of dental care. Each workstation should be equipped with a procedural table that will allow for drainage, shadow-free procedural lighting, an anesthetic machine with monitoring, thermal support, anesthetic scavenger system, dental radiographic equipment, and an air-driven dental delivery system. Lift tables, dental-specific seating, swivel handpieces, and headlamp/surgical loupe lighting should also be considered to improve ergonomics.
Management of Dental and Oral Developmental Conditions in Dogs and CatsDevelopmental dental and oral disorders are present in juvenile patients less than 12 months of age. The conditions are diverse ranging from cosmetic only to requiring advanced surgical intervention to alleviate pain and secondary complications. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and appropriate treatment of dental abnormalities including abnormalities in the number, structure, size, and shape of teeth, as well as oral abnormalities including malocclusions, congenital cleft lip and palate, developmental abnormalities resulting in bony proliferation, and soft-tissue abnormalities of the lip and tongue are discussed throughout the article.
Update on Endodontic, Restorative, and Prosthodontic TherapyEndodontic therapy is intended to preserve the function of mature teeth with irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis or to maintain the vitality of endodontically compromised immature teeth. Standard root canal therapy and vital pulp therapy are 2 mainstays of endodontic treatment. Recent knowledge has improved the outcomes of endodontic treatment with newer materials, such as mineral trioxide aggregate. Composite or prosthodontic crown restoration is also a critical key to success.
The Relationship Between Periodontal Infection and Systemic and Distant Organ Disease in DogsInfection in the mouth causes systemic and distant organ changes in dogs. This article summarizes the information available. Reported changes include an increase in liver-generated acute-phase proteins in response to the infectious insult to the body and evidence of microscopic changes in renal, hepatic, and cardiac tissues. Treatment of periodontal infection results in a decrease in the acute-phase protein concentration, which supports the hypothesis that a cause-and-effect relationship exists between periodontal infection and distant organ changes.
Oral and Maxillofacial Tumor Management - From Biopsy to Surgical RemovalThe main objective of oral and maxillofacial (OMF) tumor resection is to get local control of the disease. Many OMF tumors can be cured with wide or radical surgery, whereas others might only achieve temporary local control of the disease by removing infection and the source of pain, thereby improving the quality of life of the patient while keeping masticatory function. The standard of care on managing OMF tumors includes the diagnosis and identification of the local and distant extension of the disease to establish an appropriate treatment plan tailored for each patient. In this article, we provide a practical review of the current information related to staging, biopsy, and main surgical techniques for OMF tumor removal.
Patient Triage, First Aid Care, and Management of Oral and Maxillofacial TraumaMaxillofacial trauma is a common presentation in veterinary medical practice. Accurate assessment, diagnostics, pain management, and finally repair are tenants to treatment. In addition to typical tenants for fracture repair, the restoration of occlusion and return to function (eating, drinking, grooming) are unique to trauma management in these patients. Options for repair include conservative management (tape muzzles), noninvasive repair techniques (interdental wiring and composite splinting), and invasive repair techniques (interfragmentary wiring and plate and screw fixation).
Role of the Veterinary Technicians and Hygienists in Veterinary Dentistry and Oral SurgeryIt is important to remember that dentistry is one area of the veterinary practice that veterinary technicians/nurses/hygienists can take ownership of and drive the dental program forward under the supervision of a veterinarian. With proper training they can perform all skills except diagnosis and surgery. The veterinary technician/nurse/hygienist should educate the client about the dental procedure, perform a thorough oral examination and report findings on the dental chart, take dental radiographs, perform dental scaling and polishing, administer nerve blocks, administer perioceutics, maintain instruments and equipment, and provide discharge and home care instructions to the pet owner.
Management of Severe Oral Inflammatory Conditions in Dogs and CatsSevere oral inflammatory disease is not uncommon in the mouths of canine and feline patients. An approach to oral diagnosis is offered. This article discusses a brief review of important points in the oral diagnosis and management of main canine (canine chronic ulcerative stomatitis (CCUS), eosinophilic stomatitis, and Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG)) and feline diseases (feline gingivostomatitis/caudal stomatitis, oral eosinophilic lesions, pyogenic granuloma, and autoimmune diseases with oral manifestations), and—whereby possible—information about the current understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment is offered.
Virtual Surgical Planning and 3D Printing in Veterinary Dentistry and Oromaxillofacial SurgeryVirtual surgical planning and three-dimensional (3D) printing are preoperative processes requiring the acquisition of high-quality imaging data. A surgical treatment plan is created and rehearsed virtually as the operator manipulates the 3D images of the patient within the software. When the operator is satisfied with the plan, including anticipated osteotomies, tumor excision margins, and reconstruction options, physical 3D prints can be produced. This article introduces the reader to the basic concepts involved in virtual surgical planning and 3D printing as well as their implementation in veterinary oromaxillofacial surgery.
Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on Effect of Carnitine, Coenzyme Q10 and Selenium on Pregnancy and Semen Parameters in Couples With Idiopathic Male InfertilityTo study the effect of 3 antioxidants viz. selenium, carnitine and coenzyme Q10, alone or in combination, on both semen parameters and pregnancy rates in couples with male factor infertility.
Cryotherapy Techniques: Best Protocols to Support the Foot in Health and DiseaseTreatment of equine laminitis continues to be a challenge despite recent advancements in knowledge of the pathophysiology of laminitis. With more evidence supporting its use, distal limb hypothermia or cryotherapy has become a standard of care for both prevention of laminitis and treatment of the early stages of acute laminitis. Recent studies have demonstrated that cryotherapy reduces the severity of sepsis-related laminitis and hyperinsulinemic laminitis in experimental models and reduces the incidence of laminitis in clinical colitis cases. This article reviews the recent literature supporting the use of distal limb cryotherapy in horses.
Laminitis Updates: Sepsis/Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome–Associated LaminitisSepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) -associated laminitis is a sequela to primary inflammatory conditions (eg, colitis, ischemic intestinal injury, pneumonia, metritis) and results from a dysregulated systemic inflammatory response that ultimately affects the digital lamellae. Local chemokine production, leukocyte migration, and proinflammatory mediator production occur within the lamellae that can lead to catastrophic lamellar failure. Controlling the primary disease, providing supportive care and anti-inflammatory therapy, applying digital cryotherapy, and providing mechanical support are cornerstones to the prevention of sepsis/SIRS-associated laminitis. Novel therapies targeting specific signaling pathways may provide additional therapeutic options in the future.
Other Clinical Problems of the Equine FootMany disorders affect the equine foot, and many hoof problems have multiple predisposing causes. Surgery may be necessary after conservative management has failed. Diseases of the hoof capsule may seem simple, but their effect on performance can be long-lasting and healing is often prolonged. Diagnosis of problems within the hoof capsule is enhanced with the use of computed tomography and MRI. The prognosis of fractures has improved with strategic placement of lag screws across fracture planes using aiming devices and advanced intraoperative imaging techniques. Collaboration between the clinician and a skilled farrier is important for successful management of hoof disorders.
Mechanical Principles of the Equine FootA healthy foot requires a well-balanced foot capable of shock absorption, traction, and normal proprioception. Radiographs and venograms are helpful in assessing health of the external and internal structures of the foot and in early diagnosis. Other techniques to assess foot mechanics include force plate and inertial sensors. When foot pathology ensues, early recognition and emergency mechanical treatment can improve prognosis and overall outcome. Sheared heels, under-run heels, and clubfeet are common problems that need to be corrected early. Successful management and results require he veterinarians and farriers establishing a professional, collaborative, and respectful relationship.
The Urologist and the Appendix: A Review of Appendiceal Use in Genitourinary Reconstructive SurgeryRecently, genitourinary reconstruction has experienced a renaissance. Over the past several years, there has been an expansion of the literature regarding the use of buccal mucosa for the repair of complex ureteral strictures and other pathologies. The appendix has been an available graft utilized for the repair of ureteral stricture disease and has been infrequently reported since the early 1900s. This review serves to highlight the use of the appendix for reconstruction in urology, particularly focusing on the anatomy and physiology of the appendix, historical use, and current applications, particularly in robotic upper tract reconstruction.
The Big Picture in Better Understanding the Equine FootThe multiple topics summarized in this article and discussed in detail in this issue of VCNA are comprehensive and in-depth, exploring concepts and clinical experiences for state-of-the-art care of the equine foot. The research on the equine foot will translate to the clinical setting and with this the compassionate care of the horse.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Equine FootThis article provides an overview of foot anatomy and physiology, with a focus on fundamental knowledge. The foot is defined as the epidermal hoof capsule and all structures enveloped by the capsule. The anatomy is described using terminology published in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria.
Imaging the Equine FootOver the past 5 years, advancements in diagnostic imaging technology have led to improvement of radiographic technique and development of standing computed tomography (CT) and PET-CT scanners. Although these modalities are in their initial stages of development and clinical applications, they are meant to revolutionize the diagnosis and management of diseases of the foot in the standing patient, in particular detecting subclinical lesions, and the establishment of computer-assisted surgical suits. This article also reviews the improved radiographic projections of the equine foot and benefits of high-field and contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosis of cartilage and ligamentous pathologies.
“Feeding the Foot”: Nutritional Influences on Equine Hoof HealthNutrition plays an important role in equine health, including that of the foot. Deficiencies and excesses of dietary components can affect the growth and function of the foot and have been associated with important podiatric diseases. The recognition, prevention, and treatment of specific notable nutritional diseases of the foot are discussed, as well as information regarding specific ingredients included in supplements meant to improve equine hoof quality. Ensuring provision of a balanced diet, maintaining horses in appropriate body condition, and seeking guidance from an equine nutritionist when creating dietary recommendations will prevent most equine foot disease related to nutrition.
Endocrinopathic LaminitisEndocrinopathic laminitis (EL) primarily occurs because of insulin dysregulation (ID) mediated through downstream effects of insulin on IGF-1R in lamellar tissues. There is likely contributing vascular and metabolic dysfunction within the lamellae, but EL is relatively non-inflammatory. EL is associated with lamellar stretching, proliferation, and failure, ultimately causing failure of the suspensory apparatus of the distal phalanx. Proper education regarding mitigating risk factors makes this a largely preventable cause of laminitis. Annual hoof evaluation plus screening geriatric horses for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and ID, and younger horses for ID, can significantly decrease the incidence of this devastating condition.
Supporting Limb LaminitisSupporting limb laminitis (SLL) is a relatively frequent complication of painful limb conditions that alter normal weight-bearing patterns in horses. New evidence suggests that a lack of limb load cycling activity (normally associated with ambulation) interferes with normal perfusion of the lamellae in these cases, resulting in ischemia and dysfunction/death of cells critical to the mechanical function of the lamellae. Excessive weight-bearing load drives the progression to overt acute laminitis in the supporting limb. Monitoring and enhancement of limb load cycling activity are key strategies that may lead to successful prevention of SLL by ensuring adequate lamellar perfusion.
Pharmacology of the Equine Foot: Medical Pain Management for LaminitisOne of the biggest challenges in managing laminitis in horses remains the control of pain. The best analgesic approach is a multimodal approach, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, and/or constant rate infusions of α-2 agonists, ketamine, and lidocaine. Recent literature indicates that amitriptyline and soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor might be beneficial. Clinically oriented studies will be needed if they have a place in laminitis pain management. The systemic pain control can be combined with local techniques such as long-acting local anesthetics or epidural catheterization that allows for administration of potent analgesic therapy with a lower risk of negative side effects.