Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on Effect of Carnitine, Coenzyme Q10 and Selenium on Pregnancy and Semen Parameters in Couples With Idiopathic Male InfertilityTo study the effect of 3 antioxidants viz. selenium, carnitine and coenzyme Q10, alone or in combination, on both semen parameters and pregnancy rates in couples with male factor infertility.
The Urologist and the Appendix: A Review of Appendiceal Use in Genitourinary Reconstructive SurgeryRecently, genitourinary reconstruction has experienced a renaissance. Over the past several years, there has been an expansion of the literature regarding the use of buccal mucosa for the repair of complex ureteral strictures and other pathologies. The appendix has been an available graft utilized for the repair of ureteral stricture disease and has been infrequently reported since the early 1900s. This review serves to highlight the use of the appendix for reconstruction in urology, particularly focusing on the anatomy and physiology of the appendix, historical use, and current applications, particularly in robotic upper tract reconstruction.
Corrigendum to ‘Opioid Free Ureteroscopy: What is the True Failure Rate?’ [Urology Vol. 154 (2021) pp. 89-95]The authors regret that there is a typo in the Results section of the Abstract. “In the total cohort, benzodiazepine users had a lower risk of OF-URS failure on multivariate analysis” should read “benzodiazepine users had a higher risk of OF-URS failure”.
A Systematic Review of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Female Pelvic Floor DisordersNumerous studies have investigated the influence of health disparities among women with pelvic floor disorders with varied results. Racial/ethnic disparities, in particular, inconsistently indicate differences in prevalence of disease, disease severity, and treatment outcomes. We aim to review the body of literature examining racial/ethnic disparities in pelvic floor disorders, including overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and interstitial cystitis. A better understanding of these disparities may help guide clinicians, researchers, and advocates in providing improved education, outreach opportunities, and access to care in minority women with pelvic floor disorders.
Anterior Urethroplasty for the Management of Urethral Strictures in Males: A Systematic ReviewTo identify the currently utilised techniques of anterior urethroplasty described in literature for treatment of urethral strictures, assess the effectiveness of the identified techniques based on re-stricture and complication rates, evaluate, and suggest treatment options based on current evidence for urethral strictures at different locations and of different lengths.
A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Dual Therapy in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma of Favourable RiskTo define the impact of first-line dual therapy involving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) on survival outcomes in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (aRCC) of International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium favourable-risk.
Non-Animal Stabilized Hyaluronic Acid/Dextranomer Gel (NASHA/Dx, Deflux) for Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux: What Have We Learned Over the Last 20 Years?Non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel (Deflux; NASHA/Dx) was developed as a treatment for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in the 1990s. To mark 20 years since the US approval of this agent, we reviewed its properties, best practice for application, and the available clinical safety and efficacy data. Long-term or randomized, controlled studies of treatment with NASHA/Dx have reported VUR resolution rates of 59%–100% with low rates of febrile urinary tract infection post-treatment (4%–25%), indicating long-term protection of the kidneys.
Robot‑Assisted Laparoscopic Extra-Vesical Ureteral Reimplantation (Ralur/Revur) for Pediatric Vesicoureteral Reflux: A Systematic Review of LiteratureThis literature review aimed to assess the outcomes of robot-assisted laparoscopic extra-vesical ureteral reimplantation (RALUR/REVUR) in standard, complex and re-operative cases. Twenty-two studies (period 2008-2019) containing 1362 children receiving RALUR/REVUR, were included. Unilateral repair was faster compared to bilateral (P = .0000). The overall patient success rate was 92%. The mean post-operative complications rate was 10.7%. The mean re-operations rate was 3.9%. The available data show that RALUR/REVUR can be a first line surgical approach for pediatric vesicoureteral reflux at most centers with the caveat that learning curves for the surgeons are expected as with most new surgical procedures.
Amyloidosis of the Urinary Bladder: A Systematic Review and a Proposed Management AlgorithmTo propose an algorithm for the management of bladder amyloidosis based on a systematic review of the literature, given that the bladder is the second most commonly affected organ of the urinary tract in the course of systemic or localized amyloidosis.
Does a Positive Surgical Margin After Nephron Sparing Surgery Affect Oncological Outcome in Renal Cell Carcinoma? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisWe systematically evaluated the impact of positive surgical margins (PSM) on oncological outcomes after partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. Forty-two studies comprising 101,153 subjects were included and five distinct meta-analyses were performed. PSM was associated with increased risk of local recurrence (hazard ratio (HR) 6.11—high certainty), metastasis (HR 3.29—moderate certainty), overall relapse (HR 2.25—high certainty), overall mortality (HR 1.30—moderate certainty), and may be associated with increased cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.91—low certainty).
Priapism and Sickle Cell Disease: Special Considerations in Etiology, Management, and PreventionSickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited medical condition where sickled red blood cells cause vaso-occlusive crisis. One major complication of SCD is priapism, defined as an erection of the penis lasting over four hours beyond sexual stimulation or orgasm. SCD priapism is caused by sickled erythrocytes obstructing venous outflow and can lead to permanent erectile dysfunction. This article reviews the pathology, physiology, and management of SCD priapism, including potential novel therapeutic agents.
Current Status of Intravesical Therapies for Bladder Pain Syndrome (BPS): A Narrative Review of Emerging EvidenceBladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a complex condition, which can have debilitating sequelae for patients. Many elements of BPS remain poorly understood including pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Navigating patient care can therefore be challenging for the clinician. Management mandates a multidisciplinary and symptom-based approach. Intravesical treatments such as instillation therapies remain a cornerstone of most treatment algorithms and there are a range of agents that can be selected. This review offers an up-to-date evaluation of the evidence for these intravesical treatments.
The Expanding Use of Buccal Mucosal Grafts in Urologic SurgeryThe advent and success of buccal mucosal grafts as a substitution material in the urinary tract has changed the landscape of reconstructive urology. Due to its ease to harvest, low morbidity, and advantageous properties, there has been a growing number of applications for buccal mucosal grafts in upper and lower urinary tract reconstruction as well as genital reconstruction. In this article, we review the historical application and the evolution of buccal mucosal grafts and provide an up-to-date review on its utilization in urologic procedures.
Cribriform Prostate Cancer: Clinical Pathologic and Molecular ConsiderationsIntraductal cribriform (IDC) and invasive cribriform morphologies are associated with worse prostate cancer outcomes. Limited retrospective studies have associated IDC and cribriform morphology with germline mutations in DNA repair genes, particularly BRCA2. These findings, which prompted the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines for Prostate Cancer and Genetic/Familial High- Risk Assessment to consider germline testing for individuals with IDC/cribriform histology, have been questioned in a recent prospective study.
SpaceOAR Hydrogel Spacer for Reducing Radiation Toxicity During Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer. A Systematic ReviewTo evaluate the association between SpaceOAR and radiation dosing, toxicity and quality-of-life vs no spacer across all radiotherapy modalities for prostate cancer.
Pyeloplasty in Adults With Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Poorly Functioning Kidneys: A Systematic ReviewTo systematically summarize the available evidence concerning the impact of pyeloplasty on symptoms and differential renal function (DRF) in adults with unilateral UPJO in poorly functioning kidneys (PFK), and to identify potential predictors of kidney function recovery that could help clinicians select candidates for pyeloplasty.
The Diagnosis and Management of Life-threatening Urologic InfectionsGenitourinary infections are commonly encountered and managed in inpatient, outpatient, and emergency settings. Fournier's gangrene, emphysematous pyelonephritis, and obstructive pyelonephritis represent the most serious urologic infections and have a high risk of mortality if not managed promptly. Due to the rarity of these infections, the evidence for specific treatment strategies is scattered. This review aims to provide comprehensive, evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of these life-threatening urologic infections.
Machine Learning Models for Predicting Stone-Free Status after Shockwave Lithotripsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisWe performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the use of machine learning techniques for predicting stone-free rates following Shockwave Lithotripsy (SWL). Eight papers (3264 patients) were included. Two studies used decision-tree approaches, five studies utilised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and one study combined a variety of approaches. The summary true positive rate was 79%, summary false positive rate was 14%, and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) was 0.90 for machine learning approaches.
The Association between Mortality and Male Infertility: Systematic Review and Meta-analysisTo summarize the current body of evidence on the relationship between impaired male fertility and the risk of early death through a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based retrospective cohort studies.
Neoadjuvant Therapy for Cisplatin Ineligible Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients: A Review of Available EvidenceNeoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy is the standard of care for muscle invasive non-metastatic bladder cancer patients. While cisplatin based neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been recommended, systemic therapy in a neoadjuvant setting for cisplatin ineligible patients still needs to be addressed. Various strategies like split dosing cisplatin chemotherapy, carboplatin based chemotherapy and taxanes based chemotherapy have been tried as neoadjuvant therapy for cisplatin ineligible patients.
A Systematic Review on the Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in Diagnosing Testicular AbnormalitiesGreyscale and color doppler ultrasound are the standard when investigating testicular lesions. However, they cannot provide information on the microvasculature. As such, differentiating benign from malignant tumors is challenging. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) uses ultrasound contrast agents that are exclusively intravascular to image the microvasculature. This review assessed CEUS outcomes in investigating intratesticular lesions and concluded that qualitative CEUS provides the most advantage by confirming vascularity, thus differentiating non-neoplastic from neoplastic lesions with added confidence, allowing for appropriate management.
Erectile Function Post Prostate Biopsy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisTo determine the effect of prostate biopsy on erectile function we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis up to August 2020. Mean difference of International Index of Erectile Function-5 compared to baseline scores were pooled at 1, 3 and 6-months using a random effect model. Of 47 full text articles identified, 7 were included in the meta-analysis. A significant reduction in mean IIEF5 of 4.61 (0.32-8.91, P= .04) was found at 1-month post biopsy. This resolved with non-significant differences at 3- and 6-months post procedure.
Preserving Well-being in Patients With Advanced and Late Prostate CancerAndrogen deprivation therapy, alone or in combination with androgen signaling inhibitors, is a treatment option for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC). When making treatment decisions, health care providers must consider the long-term effects of treatment on the patient's overall health and well-being. Herein, we review the effects of these treatments on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, cognition, and fall risk, and provide management approaches for each. We also include an algorithm to help health care providers implement best clinical practices and interdisciplinary care for preserving the overall well-being of PC patients.
Prostate Cancer Foundation Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer Biomarker Working Group Meeting SummaryAndrogen deprivation therapy remains the backbone therapy for the treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). In recent years, several treatments, including docetaxel, abiraterone + prednisone, enzalutamide, and apalutamide, have each been shown to demonstrate survival benefit when used upfront along with androgen deprivation therapy. However, treatment selection for an individual patient remains a challenge. There is no high level clinical evidence for treatment selection among these choices based on biological drivers of clinical disease.