Enhancing interaction of actin and actin-binding domain 1 of dystrophin with modulators: Toward improved gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophyDuchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal muscle disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, an actin-binding cytoskeletal protein. Absence of functional dystrophin results in muscle weakness and degeneration, eventually leading to cardiac and respiratory failure. Strategies to replace the missing dystrophin via gene therapy have been intensively pursued. However, the dystrophin gene is too large for current gene therapy approaches. Currently available micro-dystrophin constructs lack the actin-binding domain 2 and show decreased actin-binding affinity in vitro compared to full-length dystrophin.
Early stage β-amyloid-membrane interactions modulate lipid dynamics and influence structural interfaces and fibrillationMolecular interactions between β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and membranes contribute to the neuronal toxicity of Aβ and the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Neuronal plasma membranes serve as biologically relevant environments for the Aβ aggregation process as well as affect the structural polymorphisms of Aβ aggregates. However, the nature of these interactions is unknown. Here, we utilized solid-state NMR spectroscopy to explore the site-specific interactions between Aβ peptides and lipids in synaptic plasma membranes at the membrane-associated nucleation stage.
Theaflavin binds to a druggable pocket of TMEM16A channel and inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cell viabilityAs a calcium-activated chloride channel regulated by the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and membrane potential, TMEM16A has attracted considerable attention and has been proposed as a novel anticancer drug target. We have previously reported that the pocket above the ion conductance pore could be a nonselective inhibitor-binding pocket. However, whether this pocket is druggable remains unexplored. In this study, we performed virtual screening to target the presumed inhibitor-binding pocket and identified a highly effective TMEM16A inhibitor, theaflavin (TF: a tea polyphenol in black tea).
Cardiac myosin-binding protein C interaction with actin is inhibited by compounds identified in a high-throughput fluorescence lifetime screenCardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) interacts with actin and myosin to modulate cardiac muscle contractility. These interactions are disfavored by cMyBP-C phosphorylation. Heart failure patients often display decreased cMyBP-C phosphorylation, and phosphorylation in model systems has been shown to be cardioprotective against heart failure. Therefore, cMyBP-C is a potential target for heart failure drugs that mimic phosphorylation or perturb its interactions with actin/myosin. Here we have used a novel fluorescence lifetime-based assay to identify small-molecule inhibitors of actin-cMyBP-C binding.
Molecular basis for diaryldiamine selectivity and competition with tRNA in a type 2 methionyl-tRNA synthetase from a Gram-negative bacteriumGram-negative bacteria are responsible for a variety of human, animal, and plant diseases. The spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria poses a challenge to disease control and highlights the need for novel antimicrobials. Owing to their critical role in protein synthesis, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, including the methionyl-tRNA synthetases MetRS1 and MetRS2, are attractive drug targets. MetRS1 has long been exploited as a drug target in Gram-positive bacteria and protozoan parasites.
Dissecting the molecular determinants of clinical PARP1 inhibitor selectivity for tankyrase1Poly-ADP-ribosyltransferases play a critical role in DNA repair and cell death, and poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is a particularly important therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer because of its synthetic lethal relationship with breast cancer susceptibility proteins 1 and 2. Numerous PARP1 inhibitors have been developed, and their efficacy in cancer treatment is attributed to both the inhibition of enzymatic activity and their ability to trap PARP1 on to the damaged DNA, which is cytotoxic.
Novel drug discovery platform for spinocerebellar ataxia, using fluorescence technology targeting β-III-spectrinNumerous diseases are linked to mutations in the actin-binding domains (ABDs) of conserved cytoskeletal proteins, including β-III-spectrin, α-actinin, filamin, and dystrophin. A β-III-spectrin ABD mutation (L253P) linked to spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) causes a dramatic increase in actin binding. Reducing actin binding of L253P is thus a potential therapeutic approach for SCA5 pathogenesis. Here, we validate a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay to discover potential disrupters of the interaction between the mutant β-III-spectrin ABD and actin in live cells.
Synthetic thick filaments: A new avenue for better understanding the myosin super-relaxed state in healthy, diseased, and mavacamten-treated cardiac systemsA hallmark feature of myosin-II is that it can spontaneously self-assemble into bipolar synthetic thick filaments (STFs) in low-ionic-strength buffers, thereby serving as a reconstituted in vitro model for muscle thick filaments. Although these STFs have been extensively used for structural characterization, their functional evaluation has been limited. In this report, we show that myosins in STFs mirror the more electrostatic and cooperative interactions that underlie the energy-sparing super-relaxed (SRX) state, which are not seen using shorter myosin subfragments, heavy meromyosin (HMM) and myosin subfragment 1 (S1).