Enhancing interaction of actin and actin-binding domain 1 of dystrophin with modulators: Toward improved gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophyDuchenne muscular dystrophy is a lethal muscle disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, an actin-binding cytoskeletal protein. Absence of functional dystrophin results in muscle weakness and degeneration, eventually leading to cardiac and respiratory failure. Strategies to replace the missing dystrophin via gene therapy have been intensively pursued. However, the dystrophin gene is too large for current gene therapy approaches. Currently available micro-dystrophin constructs lack the actin-binding domain 2 and show decreased actin-binding affinity in vitro compared to full-length dystrophin.
Might nontransferrin-bound iron in blood plasma and sera be a nonproteinaceous high-molecular-mass FeIII aggregate?The HFE (Homeostatic Fe regulator) gene is commonly mutated in hereditary hemochromatosis. Blood of (HFE)(−/−) mice and of humans with hemochromatosis contains toxic nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI) which accumulates in organs. However, the chemical composition of NTBI is uncertain. To investigate, HFE(−/−) mice were fed iron-deficient diets supplemented with increasing amounts of iron, with the expectation that NTBI levels would increase. Blood plasma was filtered to obtain retentate and flow-through solution fractions.
Mechanistic insights into poly(C)-binding protein hnRNP K resolving i-motif DNA secondary structuresI-motifs are four-strand noncanonical secondary structures formed by cytosine (C)-rich sequences in living cells. The structural dynamics of i-motifs play essential roles in many cellular processes, such as telomerase inhibition, DNA replication, and transcriptional regulation. In cells, the structural dynamics of the i-motif can be modulated by the interaction of poly(C)-binding proteins (PCBPs), and the interaction is closely related to human health, through modulating the transcription of oncogenes and telomere stability.
A lysine residue from an extracellular turret switches the ion preference in a Cav3 T-Type channel from calcium to sodium ionsCav3 T-type calcium channels from great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis have a selectivity-filter ring of five acidic residues, EE(D)DD. Splice variants with exons 12b or 12a spanning the extracellular loop between the outer helix IIS5 and membrane-descending pore helix IIP1 (IIS5-P1) in Domain II of the pore module possess calcium selectivity or dominant sodium permeability, respectively. Here, we use AlphaFold2 neural network software to predict that a lysine residue in exon 12a is salt-bridged to the aspartate residue immediately C terminal to the second-domain glutamate in the selectivity filter.
DNA-mediated proteolysis by neutrophil elastase enhances binding activities of the HMGB1 proteinNeutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are produced through ejection of genomic DNA by neutrophils into extracellular space and serve as a weapon to fight against pathogens. Neutrophil elastase, a serine protease loaded on NETs, attacks and kills pathogens, while extracellular high-mobility-group-box-1 (HMGB1) protein serves as a danger signal to other cells. How the action of these factors is coordinated as part of the innate immune response is not fully understood. In this article, using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that DNA mediates specific proteolysis of HMGB1 by neutrophil elastase and that the proteolytic processing remarkably enhances binding activities of extracellular HMGB1.
The ganglioside GM1a functions as a coreceptor/attachment factor for dengue virus during infectionDengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus causing an estimated 390 million infections per year around the world. Despite the immense global health and economic impact of this virus, its true receptor(s) for internalization into live cells has not yet been identified, and no successful antivirals or treatments have been isolated to this date. This study aims to improve our understanding of virus entry routes by exploring the sialic acid–based cell surface molecule GM1a and its role in DENV infection. We studied the interaction of the virus with GM1a using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence crosscorrelation spectroscopy, imaging fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and isothermal titration calorimetry.
Early stage β-amyloid-membrane interactions modulate lipid dynamics and influence structural interfaces and fibrillationMolecular interactions between β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and membranes contribute to the neuronal toxicity of Aβ and the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Neuronal plasma membranes serve as biologically relevant environments for the Aβ aggregation process as well as affect the structural polymorphisms of Aβ aggregates. However, the nature of these interactions is unknown. Here, we utilized solid-state NMR spectroscopy to explore the site-specific interactions between Aβ peptides and lipids in synaptic plasma membranes at the membrane-associated nucleation stage.
The N-terminal disease–associated R5L Tau mutation increases microtubule shrinkage rate due to disruption of microtubule-bound Tau patchesRegulation of the neuronal microtubule cytoskeleton is achieved through the coordination of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). MAP-Tau, the most abundant MAP in the axon, functions to modulate motor motility, participate in signaling cascades, as well as directly mediate microtubule dynamics. Tau misregulation is associated with a class of neurodegenerative diseases, known as tauopathies, including progressive supranuclear palsy, Pick's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Many disease-associated mutations in Tau are found in the C-terminal microtubule-binding domain.
N-terminal acetylation and arginylation of actin determines the architecture and assembly rate of linear and branched actin networksThe great diversity in actin network architectures and dynamics is exploited by cells to drive fundamental biological processes, including cell migration, endocytosis, and cell division. While it is known that this versatility is the result of the many actin-remodeling activities of actin-binding proteins, such as Arp2/3 and cofilin, recent work also implicates posttranslational acetylation or arginylation of the actin N terminus itself as an equally important regulatory mechanism. However, the molecular mechanisms by which acetylation and arginylation alter the properties of actin are not well understood.
The heme-regulated inhibitor kinase requires dimerization for heme-sensing activityThe heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) is a heme-sensing kinase that regulates mRNA translation in erythroid cells. In heme deficiency, HRI is activated to phosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and halt production of globins, thus avoiding accumulation of heme-free globin chains. HRI is inhibited by heme via binding to one or two heme-binding domains within the HRI N-terminal and kinase domains. HRI has recently been found to inhibit fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production in adult erythroid cells.
Densely methylated DNA traps Methyl-CpG–binding domain protein 2 but permits free diffusion by Methyl-CpG–binding domain protein 3The methyl-CpG–binding domain 2 and 3 proteins (MBD2 and MBD3) provide structural and DNA-binding function for the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex. The two proteins form distinct NuRD complexes and show different binding affinity and selectivity for methylated DNA. Previous studies have shown that MBD2 binds with high affinity and selectivity for a single methylated CpG dinucleotide while MBD3 does not. However, the NuRD complex functions in regions of the genome that contain many CpG dinucleotides (CpG islands).