- Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is a key regulatory enzyme in the de novo synthesis of the purine base guanine. Dominant mutations in human IMPDH1 cause photoreceptor degeneration for reasons that are unknown. Here, we sought to provide some foundational information on Impdh1a in the zebrafish retina. We found that in zebrafish, gene subfunctionalization due to ancestral duplication resulted in a predominant retinal variant expressed exclusively in rod and cone photoreceptors. This variant is structurally and functionally similar to the human IMPDH1 retinal variant and shares a reduced sensitivity to GTP-mediated inhibition.
- Defects in energy metabolism in either the retina or the immediately adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) underlie retinal degeneration, but the metabolic dependence between retina and RPE remains unclear. Nitrogen-containing metabolites such as amino acids are essential for energy metabolism. Here, we found that 15N-labeled ammonium is predominantly assimilated into glutamine in both the retina and RPE/choroid ex vivo. [15N]Ammonium tracing in vivo show that, like the brain, the retina can synthesize asparagine from ammonium, but RPE/choroid and the liver cannot.
- The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of pigmented cells between the choroid and the retina. RPE dysfunction underlies many retinal degenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of age-related blindness. To perform its various functions in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the outer segment, and cytokine secretion, the RPE relies on an active energy metabolism. We previously reported that human RPE cells prefer proline as a nutrient and transport proline-derived metabolites to the apical, or retinal, side.
- Metabolite transport is a major function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to support the neural retina. RPE dysfunction plays a significant role in retinal degenerative diseases. We have used mass spectrometry with 13C tracers to systematically study nutrient consumption and metabolite transport in cultured human fetal RPE. LC/MS-MS detected 120 metabolites in the medium from either the apical or basal side. Surprisingly, more proline is consumed than any other nutrient, including glucose, taurine, lipids, vitamins, or other amino acids.
- Production of energy in a cell must keep pace with demand. Photoreceptors use ATP to maintain ion gradients in darkness, whereas in light they use it to support phototransduction. Matching production with consumption can be accomplished by coupling production directly to consumption. Alternatively, production can be set by a signal that anticipates demand. In this report we investigate the hypothesis that signaling through phototransduction controls production of energy in mouse retinas. We found that respiration in mouse retinas is not coupled tightly to ATP consumption.