- In the vertebrate retina, phosphorylation of photoactivated visual pigments in rods and cones by G protein–coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) is essential for sustained visual function. Previous in vitro analysis demonstrated that GRK1 and GRK7 are phosphorylated by PKA, resulting in a reduced capacity to phosphorylate rhodopsin. In vivo observations revealed that GRK phosphorylation occurs in the dark and is cAMP dependent. In many vertebrates, including humans and zebrafish, GRK1 is expressed in both rods and cones while GRK7 is expressed only in cones.
- The protostome leucokinin (LK) signaling system, including LK peptides and their G protein-coupled receptors, has been characterized in several species. Despite the progress, molecular mechanisms governing LK peptide–receptor interactions remain to be elucidated. Previously, we identified a precursor protein for Aplysia leucokinin-like peptides (ALKs) that contains the greatest number of amidated peptides among LK precursors in all species identified so far. Here, we identified the first ALK receptor from Aplysia, ALKR.