- Background: TREM2 is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases.Results: ApoE bound to TREM2 and increased phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons by microglia. Alzheimer disease (AD) risk-associated TREM2-R47H mutant had a reduced binding to apoE.Conclusion: ApoE is a novel ligand for TREM2. Interaction between apoE and TREM2 likely regulates phagocytosis of apoE-bound apoptotic neurons.Significance: Interaction between two AD risk-associated proteins modulates microglial function.
- Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a DAP12-associated receptor expressed in microglia, macrophages, and other myeloid-derived cells. Previous studies have suggested that TREM2/DAP12 signaling pathway reduces inflammatory responses and promotes phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons. Recently, TREM2 has been identified as a risk gene for Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we show that DAP12 stabilizes the C-terminal fragment of TREM2 (TREM2-CTF), a substrate for γ-secretase. Co-expression of DAP12 with TREM2 selectively increased the level of TREM2-CTF with little effects on that of full-length TREM2.
- Pericytes play a critical role in the cerebrovasculature within the CNS. These small contractile cells produce large quantities of apolipoprotein E (apoE) whose isoforms influence cerebrovascular functions and determine the genetic risk for Alzheimer disease. Despite extensive studies on astrocyte-secreted apoE, which supports synapses by transporting cholesterol to neurons, the biochemical properties and function of apoE secreted by pericytes are not clear. Because pericytes mediate important functions in the CNS, including the initiation of glial scar formation, angiogenesis, and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier, we investigated the potential role of apoE in pericyte mobility.