- Following its evoked release, dopamine (DA) signaling is rapidly terminated by presynaptic reuptake, mediated by the cocaine-sensitive DA transporter (DAT). DAT surface availability is dynamically regulated by endocytic trafficking, and direct protein kinase C (PKC) activation acutely diminishes DAT surface expression by accelerating DAT internalization. Previous cell line studies demonstrated that PKC-stimulated DAT endocytosis requires both Ack1 inactivation, which releases a DAT-specific endocytic brake, and the neuronal GTPase, Rit2, which binds DAT.
- Several protein kinases, including protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and extracellular signal–regulated kinase, play key roles in the regulation of dopamine transporter (DAT) functions. These functions include surface expression, internalization, and forward and reverse transport, with phosphorylation sites for these kinases being linked to distinct regions of the DAT N terminus. Protein phosphatases (PPs) also regulate DAT activity, but the specific residues associated with their activities have not yet been elucidated.
- The human dopamine transporter (DAT) has a tetrahedral Zn2+-binding site. Zn2+-binding sites are also recognized by other first-row transition metals. Excessive accumulation of manganese or of copper can lead to parkinsonism because of dopamine deficiency. Accordingly, we examined the effect of Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Cu2+ on transport-associated currents through DAT and DAT-H193K, a mutant with a disrupted Zn2+-binding site. All transition metals except Mn2+ modulated the transport cycle of wild-type DAT with affinities in the low micromolar range.
- Extracellular dopamine and serotonin concentrations are determined by the presynaptic dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) transporters, respectively. Numerous studies have investigated the DAT and SERT structural elements contributing to inhibitor and substrate binding. To date, crystallographic studies have focused on conserved transmembrane domains, where multiple substrate binding and translocation features are conserved. However, it is unknown what, if any, role the highly divergent intracellular N and C termini contribute to these processes.
- Background: Zn2+ was originally proposed to inhibit dopamine uptake by the dopamine transporter (DAT).Results: Zn2+ depressed peak currents, and modulated steady state-currents through DAT in a manner dependent on internal Na+.Conclusion: At physiological intracellular Na+, Zn2+ activates both the forward and exchange transport mode of DAT.Significance: The action of Zn2+ is of interest for rescuing conformationally trapped DAT mutants.
- The folding trajectory of solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family members is of interest because point mutations result in misfolding and thus cause clinically relevant phenotypes in people. Here we examined the contribution of the C terminus in supporting folding of the serotonin transporter (SERT; SLC6A4). Our working hypothesis posited that the amphipathic nature of the C-terminal α-helix (Thr603–Thr613) was important for folding of SERT. Accordingly, we disrupted the hydrophobic moment of the α-helix by replacing Phe604, Ile608, or Ile612 by Gln.