Management of the agricultural pathogen soybean cyst nematode (SCN) relies on the use of SCN-resistant soybean cultivars, a strategy that has been failing in recent years. An underutilized source of resistance in the soybean genotype Peking is linked to two polymorphisms in serine hydroxy-methyltransferase 8 (SHMT8). SHMT is a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate–dependent enzyme that converts l-serine and (6S)-tetrahydrofolate to glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. Here, we determined five crystal structures of the 1884-residue SHMT8 tetramers from the SCN-susceptible cultivar (cv.) Essex and the SCN-resistant cv.