- Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are central regulators of plant growth and development, including seed development. GA homeostasis is achieved via complex biosynthetic and catabolic pathways, whose exact activities remain to be elucidated. Here, we isolated two cDNAs from mature or imbibed cucumber seeds with high sequence similarity to known GA 3-oxidases. We found that one enzyme (designated here CsGA3ox5) has GA 3-oxidation activity. However, the second enzyme (designated CsGA1ox/ds) performed multiple reactions, including 1β-oxidation and 9,11-desaturation of GAs, but was lacking the 3-oxidation activity.
- Redox regulation based on the thioredoxin (Trx) system is believed to ensure light-responsive control of various functions in chloroplasts. Five Trx subtypes have been reported to reside in chloroplasts, but their functional diversity in the redox regulation of Trx target proteins remains poorly clarified. To directly address this issue, we studied the Trx-dependent redox shifts of several chloroplast thiol-modulated enzymes in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays using a series of Arabidopsis recombinant proteins provided new insights into Trx selectivity for the redox regulation as well as the underpinning for previous suggestions.