- Tartaric acid has high economic value as an antioxidant and flavorant in food and wine industries. l-Tartaric acid biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) uses ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as precursor, representing an unusual metabolic fate for ascorbic acid degradation. Reduction of the ascorbate breakdown product 2-keto-l-gulonic acid to l-idonic acid constitutes a critical step in this l-tartaric acid biosynthetic pathway. However, the underlying enzymatic mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we identified a V.
- Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a structurally diverse class of plant-specialized metabolites that have been particularly well-studied in the order Ranunculales. The N-methyltransferases (NMTs) in BIA biosynthesis can be divided into three groups according to substrate specificity and amino acid sequence. Here, we report the first crystal structures of enzyme complexes from the tetrahydroprotoberberine NMT (TNMT) subclass, specifically for GfTNMT from the yellow horned poppy (Glaucium flavum).
- Phycobilins are light-harvesting pigments of cyanobacteria, red algae, and cryptophytes. The biosynthesis of phycoerythrobilin (PEB) is catalyzed by the subsequent action of two ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBRs). Although 15,16-dihydrobiliverdin (DHBV):ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PebA) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of biliverdin IXα to 15,16-DHBV, PEB:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PebB) reduces this intermediate further to PEB. Interestingly, marine viruses encode the FDBR PebS combining both activities within one enzyme.
- A comprehensive description of starch biosynthesis and granule assembly remains undefined despite the central nature of starch as an energy storage molecule in plants and as a fundamental calorie source for many animals. Multiple theories regarding the starch synthase (SS)-catalyzed assembly of (α1–4)-linked d-glucose molecules into maltodextrins generally agree that elongation occurs at the non-reducing terminus based on the degradation of radiolabeled maltodextrins, although recent reports challenge this hypothesis.
- Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are produced in a wide variety of plants and include many common analgesic, antitussive, and anticancer compounds. Several members of a distinct family of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent N-methyltransferases (NMTs) play critical roles in BIA biosynthesis, but the molecular basis of substrate recognition and catalysis is not known for NMTs involved in BIA metabolism. To address this issue, the crystal structure of pavine NMT from Thalictrum flavum was solved using selenomethionine-substituted protein (dmin = 2.8 Å).
- An arsenal of effector proteins is injected by bacterial pathogens into the host cell or its vicinity to increase virulence. The commonly used top-down approaches inferring the toxic mechanism of individual effector proteins from the host's phenotype are often impeded by multiple targets of different effectors as well as by their pleiotropic effects. Here we describe our bottom-up approach, showing that the bacterial type III effector AvrRxo1 of plant pathogens is an authentic phosphotransferase that produces two novel metabolites by phosphorylating nicotinamide/nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide at the adenosine 3′-hydroxyl group.
- The green odor of plants is characterized by green leaf volatiles (GLVs) composed of C6 compounds. GLVs are biosynthesized from polyunsaturated fatty acids in thylakoid membranes by a series of enzymes. A representative member of GLVs (E)-2-hexenal, known as the leaf aldehyde, has been assumed to be produced by isomerization from (Z)-3-hexenal in the biosynthesis pathway; however, the enzyme has not yet been identified. In this study, we purified the (Z)-3:(E)-2-hexenal isomerase (HI) from paprika fruits and showed that various plant species have homologous HIs.
- Background: Triphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes carry out diverse enzymatic reactions.Results: Two metal co-factors are identified involved in substrate binding and in catalysis.Conclusion: A unified catalytic mechanism is proposed and biochemically investigated.Significance: The functional diversity of TTM enzymes is rationalized by a common mechanism that allows very different substrates to be bound and processed.
- Redox regulation based on the thioredoxin (Trx) system is believed to ensure light-responsive control of various functions in chloroplasts. Five Trx subtypes have been reported to reside in chloroplasts, but their functional diversity in the redox regulation of Trx target proteins remains poorly clarified. To directly address this issue, we studied the Trx-dependent redox shifts of several chloroplast thiol-modulated enzymes in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays using a series of Arabidopsis recombinant proteins provided new insights into Trx selectivity for the redox regulation as well as the underpinning for previous suggestions.