Tartaric acid has high economic value as an antioxidant and flavorant in food and wine industries. l-Tartaric acid biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) uses ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as precursor, representing an unusual metabolic fate for ascorbic acid degradation. Reduction of the ascorbate breakdown product 2-keto-l-gulonic acid to l-idonic acid constitutes a critical step in this l-tartaric acid biosynthetic pathway. However, the underlying enzymatic mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we identified a V.