- Tartaric acid has high economic value as an antioxidant and flavorant in food and wine industries. l-Tartaric acid biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) uses ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as precursor, representing an unusual metabolic fate for ascorbic acid degradation. Reduction of the ascorbate breakdown product 2-keto-l-gulonic acid to l-idonic acid constitutes a critical step in this l-tartaric acid biosynthetic pathway. However, the underlying enzymatic mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we identified a V.
- Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a structurally diverse class of plant-specialized metabolites that have been particularly well-studied in the order Ranunculales. The N-methyltransferases (NMTs) in BIA biosynthesis can be divided into three groups according to substrate specificity and amino acid sequence. Here, we report the first crystal structures of enzyme complexes from the tetrahydroprotoberberine NMT (TNMT) subclass, specifically for GfTNMT from the yellow horned poppy (Glaucium flavum).