- Chloroplast FoF1-ATP synthase (CFoCF1) uses an electrochemical gradient of protons across the thylakoid membrane (ΔμH+) as an energy source in the ATP synthesis reaction. CFoCF1 activity is regulated by the redox state of a Cys pair on its central axis, that is, the γ subunit (CF1-γ). When the ΔμH+ is formed by the photosynthetic electron transfer chain under light conditions, CF1-γ is reduced by thioredoxin (Trx), and the entire CFoCF1 enzyme is activated. The redox regulation of CFoCF1 is a key mechanism underlying the control of ATP synthesis under light conditions.
- Thiol-based redox regulation is a post-translational protein modification for controlling enzyme activity by switching oxidation/reduction states of Cys residues. In plant cells, numerous proteins involved in a wide range of biological systems have been suggested as the target of redox regulation; however, our knowledge on this issue is still incomplete. Here we report that 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) is a novel redox-regulated protein. PGDH catalyzes the first committed step of Ser biosynthetic pathway in plastids.
- Thioredoxin (Trx) is a redox-responsive protein that modulates the activities of its target proteins mostly by reducing their disulfide bonds. In chloroplasts, five Trx isoforms (Trx-f, Trx-m, Trx-x, Trx-y, and Trx-z) regulate various photosynthesis-related enzymes with distinct target selectivity. To elucidate the determinants of the target selectivity of each Trx isoform, here we investigated the residues responsible for target recognition by Trx-f, the most well-studied chloroplast-resident Trx.
- Thiol-based redox regulation via ferredoxin-thioredoxin (Trx) reductase/Trx controls various functions in chloroplasts in response to light/dark changes. Trx is a key factor of this regulatory system, and five Trx subtypes, including 10 isoforms, have been identified as chloroplast-localized forms in Arabidopsis thaliana. These subtypes display distinct target selectivity, and, consequently, they form a complicated redox regulation network in chloroplasts. In this study, we developed a FRET-based sensor protein by combining CFP, YFP, and the N-terminal region of CP12, a redox-sensitive regulatory and Trx-targeted protein in chloroplasts.
- Translational elongation is susceptible to inactivation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and elongation factor G has been identified as a target of oxidation by ROS. In the present study we examined the sensitivity to oxidation by ROS of another elongation factor, EF-Tu. The structure of EF-Tu changes dramatically depending on the bound nucleotide. Therefore, we investigated the sensitivity to oxidation in vitro of GTP- and GDP-bound EF-Tu as well as that of nucleotide-free EF-Tu.
- Redox regulation based on the thioredoxin (Trx) system is believed to ensure light-responsive control of various functions in chloroplasts. Five Trx subtypes have been reported to reside in chloroplasts, but their functional diversity in the redox regulation of Trx target proteins remains poorly clarified. To directly address this issue, we studied the Trx-dependent redox shifts of several chloroplast thiol-modulated enzymes in vitro and in vivo. In vitro assays using a series of Arabidopsis recombinant proteins provided new insights into Trx selectivity for the redox regulation as well as the underpinning for previous suggestions.