- Phycobilins are light-harvesting pigments of cyanobacteria, red algae, and cryptophytes. The biosynthesis of phycoerythrobilin (PEB) is catalyzed by the subsequent action of two ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBRs). Although 15,16-dihydrobiliverdin (DHBV):ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PebA) catalyzes the two-electron reduction of biliverdin IXα to 15,16-DHBV, PEB:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PebB) reduces this intermediate further to PEB. Interestingly, marine viruses encode the FDBR PebS combining both activities within one enzyme.
- Ferrochelatase (FeCh) is an essential enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of heme. Interestingly, in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, FeCh possesses a conserved transmembrane chlorophyll a/b binding (CAB) domain that resembles the first and the third helix of light-harvesting complexes, including a chlorophyll-binding motif. Whether the FeCh CAB domain also binds chlorophyll is unknown. Here, using biochemical and radiolabeled precursor experiments, we found that partially inhibited activity of FeCh in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 leads to overproduction of chlorophyll molecules that accumulate in the thylakoid membrane and, together with carotenoids, bind to FeCh.
- Phycoerythrin (PE) is a green light–absorbing protein present in the light-harvesting complex of cyanobacteria and red algae. The spectral characteristics of PE are due to its prosthetic groups, or phycoerythrobilins (PEBs), that are covalently attached to the protein chain by specific bilin lyases. Only two PE lyases have been identified and characterized so far, and the other bilin lyases are unknown. Here, using in silico analyses, markerless deletion, biochemical assays with purified and recombinant proteins, and site-directed mutagenesis, we examined the role of a putative lyase-encoding gene, cpeF, in the cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon.
- Chlorophylls (Chls) are the most important cofactors for capturing solar energy to drive photosynthetic reactions. Five spectral types of Chls have been identified to date, with Chl f having the most red-shifted absorption maximum because of a C21-formyl group substitution of Chl f. However, the biochemical provenance of this formyl group is unknown. Here, we used a stable isotope labeling technique (18O and 2H) to determine the origin of the C21-formyl group of Chl f and to verify whether Chl f is synthesized from Chl a in the cyanobacterial species Halomicronema hongdechloris.
- Light harvesting complex stress-related 3 (LHCSR3) is the protein essential for photoprotective excess energy dissipation (non-photochemical quenching, NPQ) in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Activation of NPQ requires low pH in the thylakoid lumen, which is induced in excess light conditions and sensed by lumen-exposed acidic residues. In this work we have used site-specific mutagenesis in vivo and in vitro for identification of the residues in LHCSR3 that are responsible for sensing lumen pH.
- Background: LHCSR protein in algae and mosses is essential for NPQ.Results: Expression and characterization of Physcomitrella patens LHCSR1 protein upon heterologous expression in N. benthamiana and N. tabacum was obtained.Conclusion: LHCSR1 is the first member of LHC protein family lacking Chlorophyll b. It is active in NPQ.Significance: LHCSR1 isolation is crucial for the elucidation of the NPQ mechanism.