Protein Structure and Folding
Structural analysis of the interaction between human cytokine BMP-2 and the antagonist Noggin reveals molecular details of cell chondrogenesis inhibitionBone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are secreted cytokines belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. New therapeutic approaches based on BMP activity, particularly for cartilage and bone repair, have sparked considerable interest; however, a lack of understanding of their interaction pathways and the side effects associated with their use as biopharmaceuticals have dampened initial enthusiasm. Here, we used BMP-2 as a model system to gain further insight into both the relationship between structure and function in BMPs and the principles that govern affinity for their cognate antagonist Noggin.
HECT domain interaction with ubiquitin binding sites on Tsg101-UEV controls HIV-1 egress, maturation, and infectivityThe HECT domain of HECT E3 ligases consists of flexibly linked N- and C-terminal lobes, with a ubiquitin (Ub) donor site on the C-lobe that is directly involved in substrate modification. HECT ligases also possess a secondary Ub binding site in the N-lobe, which is thought to play a role in processivity, specificity, or regulation. Here, we report the use of paramagnetic solution NMR to characterize a complex formed between the isolated HECT domain of neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated 4-1 and the ubiquitin E2 variant (UEV) domain of tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101).
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yta7 ATPase hexamer contains a unique bromodomain tier that functions in nucleosome disassemblyThe Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yta7 is a chromatin remodeler harboring a histone-interacting bromodomain (BRD) and two AAA+ modules. It is not well understood how Yta7 recognizes the histone H3 tail to promote nucleosome disassembly for DNA replication or RNA transcription. By cryo-EM analysis, here we show that Yta7 assembles a three-tiered hexamer with a top BRD tier, a middle AAA1 tier, and a bottom AAA2 tier. Unexpectedly, the Yta7 BRD stabilizes a four-stranded β-helix, termed BRD-interacting motif (BIM), of the largely disordered N-terminal region.
Identification and structural analysis of a carbohydrate-binding module specific to alginate, a representative of a new family, CBM96Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are the noncatalytic modules that assist functions of the catalytic modules in carbohydrate-active enzymes, and they are usually discrete structural domains in larger multimodular enzymes. CBMs often occur in tandem in different alginate lyases belonging to the CBM families 13, 16, and 32. However, none of the currently known CBMs in alginate lyases specifically bind to an internal alginate chain. In our investigation of the multidomain alginate lyase Dp0100 carrying several ancillary domains, we identified an alginate-binding domain denoted TM6-N4 using protein truncation analysis.
5-Formyltetrahydrofolate promotes conformational remodeling in a methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase active site and inhibits its activityThe flavoprotein methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH2-H4folate) to N5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate), committing a methyl group from the folate cycle to the methionine one. This committed step is the sum of multiple ping-pong electron transfers involving multiple substrates, intermediates, and products all sharing the same active site. Insight into folate substrate binding is needed to better understand this multifunctional active site.
Cryo-EM structure of the plant nitrate transporter AtCLCa reveals characteristics of the anion-binding site and the ATP-binding pocketNitrate is one of the major nitrogen sources for most plants. Chloride channel (CLC) proteins mediate the transport and vacuole storage of nitrate in plants, but the structural basis of nitrate transport by plant CLC proteins remains unknown. Here, we solved the cryo-EM structure of ATP-bound Arabidopsis thaliana CLCa (AtCLCa) at 2.8 Å resolution. Structural comparison between nitrate-selective AtCLCa and chloride-selective CLC-7 reveals key differences in the central anion-binding site. We observed that the central nitrate is shifted by ∼1.4 Å from chloride, which is likely caused by a weaker interaction between the anion and Pro160; the side chains of aromatic residues around the central binding site are rearranged to accommodate the larger nitrate.
Structure of a dimeric photosystem II complex from a cyanobacterium acclimated to far-red lightPhotosystem II (PSII) is the water-splitting enzyme central to oxygenic photosynthesis. To drive water oxidation, light is harvested by accessory pigments, mostly chlorophyll (Chl) a molecules, which absorb visible light (400–700 nm). Some cyanobacteria facultatively acclimate to shaded environments by altering their photosynthetic machinery to additionally absorb far-red light (FRL, 700–800 nm), a process termed far-red light photoacclimation or FaRLiP. During far-red light photoacclimation, FRL-PSII is assembled with FRL-specific isoforms of the subunits PsbA, PsbB, PsbC, PsbD, and PsbH, and some Chl-binding sites contain Chls d or f instead of the usual Chl a.
The nematode α-catenin ortholog, HMP1, has an extended α-helix when bound to actin filamentsThe regulation of cell–cell junctions during epidermal morphogenesis ensures tissue integrity, a process regulated by α-catenin. This cytoskeletal protein connects the cadherin complex to filamentous actin at cell–cell junctions. The cadherin–catenin complex plays key roles in cell physiology, organism development, and disease. While mutagenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans cadherin and catenin shows that these proteins are key for embryonic morphogenesis, we know surprisingly little about their structure and attachment to the cytoskeleton.
Cryo-EM structure of Shiga toxin 2 in complex with the native ribosomal P-stalk reveals residues involved in the binding interactionShiga toxin 2a (Stx2a) is the virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. The catalytic A1 subunit of Stx2a (Stx2A1) interacts with the ribosomal P-stalk for loading onto the ribosome and depurination of the sarcin–ricin loop, which halts protein synthesis. Because of the intrinsic flexibility of the P-stalk, a structure of the Stx2a–P-stalk complex is currently unknown. We demonstrated that the native P-stalk pentamer binds to Stx2a with nanomolar affinity, and we employed cryo-EM to determine a structure of the 72 kDa Stx2a complexed with the P-stalk.
A minimal construct of nuclear-import receptor Karyopherin-β2 defines the regions critical for chaperone and disaggregation activityKaryopherin-β2 (Kapβ2) is a nuclear-import receptor that recognizes proline-tyrosine nuclear localization signals of diverse cytoplasmic cargo for transport to the nucleus. Kapβ2 cargo includes several disease-linked RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains, such as FUS, TAF15, EWSR1, hnRNPA1, and hnRNPA2. These RNA-binding proteins with prion-like domains are linked via pathology and genetics to debilitating degenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, and multisystem proteinopathy.
The carboxyl-terminal TSP1-homology domain is the biologically active effector peptide of matricellular protein CCN5 that counteracts profibrotic CCN2Cellular Communication Network (CCN) proteins have multimodular structures important for their roles in cellular responses associated with organ development and tissue homeostasis. CCN2 has previously been reported to be secreted as a preproprotein that requires proteolytic activation to release its bioactive carboxyl-terminal fragment. Here, our goal was to resolve whether CCN5, a divergent member of the CCN family with converse functions relative to CCN2, releases the TSP1 homology domain as its bioactive signaling entity.
The crystal structure of Vibrio cholerae (6-4) photolyase reveals interactions with cofactors and a DNA-binding regionPhotolyases (PLs) reverse UV-induced DNA damage using blue light as an energy source. Of these PLs, (6-4) PLs repair (6-4)-lesioned photoproducts. We recently identified a gene from Vibrio cholerae (Vc) encoding a (6-4) PL, but structural characterization is needed to elucidate specific interactions with the chromophore cofactors. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Vc (6-4) PL at 2.5 Å resolution. Our high-resolution structure revealed that the two well-known cofactors, flavin adenine dinucleotide and the photoantenna 6,7-dimethyl 8-ribityl-lumazin (DMRL), stably interact with an α-helical and an α/β domain, respectively.
Identification, binding, and structural characterization of single domain anti-PD-L1 antibodies inhibitory of immune regulatory proteins PD-1 and CD80Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a key immune regulatory protein that interacts with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), leading to T-cell suppression. Whilst this interaction is key in self-tolerance, cancer cells evade the immune system by overexpressing PD-L1. Inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with standard monoclonal antibodies has proven a highly effective cancer treatment; however, single domain antibodies (VHH) may offer numerous potential benefits. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a diverse panel of 16 novel VHHs specific to PD-L1.
The structure of caseinolytic protease subunit ClpP2 reveals a functional model of the caseinolytic protease system from Chlamydia trachomatisChlamydia trachomatis (ct) is the most reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness. Caseinolytic proteases (ClpP) from pathogenic bacteria are attractive antibiotic targets, particularly for bacterial species that form persister colonies with phenotypic resistance against common antibiotics. ClpP functions as a multisubunit proteolytic complex, and bacteria are eradicated when ClpP is disrupted. Although crucial for chlamydial development and the design of agents to treat chlamydia, the structures of ctClpP1 and ctClpP2 have yet to be solved.
Neutron crystallography and quantum chemical analysis of bilin reductase PcyA mutants reveal substrate and catalytic residue protonation statesPcyA, a ferredoxin-dependent bilin pigment reductase, catalyzes the site-specific reduction of the two vinyl groups of biliverdin (BV), producing phycocyanobilin. Previous neutron crystallography detected both the neutral BV and its protonated form (BVH+) in the wildtype (WT) PcyA–BV complex, and a nearby catalytic residue Asp105 was found to have two conformations (protonated and deprotonated). Semiempirical calculations have suggested that the protonation states of BV are reflected in the absorption spectrum of the WT PcyA–BV complex.
The permanently chaperone-active small heat shock protein Hsp17 from Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits topological separation of its N-terminal regionsSmall Heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a family of molecular chaperones that bind nonnative proteins in an ATP-independent manner. Caenorhabditis elegans encodes 16 different sHsps, among them Hsp17, which is evolutionarily distinct from other sHsps in the nematode. The structure and mechanism of Hsp17 and how these may differ from other sHsps remain unclear. Here, we find that Hsp17 has a distinct expression pattern, structural organization, and chaperone function. Consistent with its presence under nonstress conditions, and in contrast to many other sHsps, we determined that Hsp17 is a mono-disperse, permanently active chaperone in vitro, which interacts with hundreds of different C. elegans proteins under physiological conditions.
Determinants of receptor tyrosine phosphatase homophilic adhesion: Structural comparison of PTPRK and PTPRM extracellular domainsType IIB receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases are cell surface transmembrane proteins that engage in cell adhesion via their extracellular domains (ECDs) and cell signaling via their cytoplasmic phosphatase domains. The ECDs of type IIB receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases form stable, homophilic, and trans interactions between adjacent cell membranes. Previous work has demonstrated how one family member, PTPRM, forms head-to-tail homodimers. However, as the interface was composed of residues conserved across the family, the determinants of homophilic specificity remain unknown.
Exploration of the cysteine reactivity of human inducible Hsp70 and cognate Hsc70Hsp70s are multifunctional proteins and serve as the central hub of the protein quality control network. Hsp70s are also related to a number of diseases and have been established as drug targets. Human HspA1A (hHsp70) and HspA8 (hHsc70) are the major cytosolic Hsp70s, and they have both overlapping and distinct functions. hHsp70 contains five cysteine residues, and hHsc70 contains four cysteine residues. Previous studies have shown these cysteine residues can undergo different cysteine modifications such as oxidation or reaction with electrophiles to regulate their function, and hHsp70 and hHsc70 have different cysteine reactivity.
Structures of a constitutively active mutant of human IDH3 reveal new insights into the mechanisms of allosteric activation and the catalytic reactionHuman NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase or IDH3 (HsIDH3) catalyzes the decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It consists of three types of subunits (α, β, and γ) and exists and functions as the (αβαγ)2 heterooctamer. HsIDH3 is regulated allosterically and/or competitively by numerous metabolites including CIT, ADP, ATP, and NADH. Our previous studies have revealed the molecular basis for the activity and regulation of the αβ and αγ heterodimers.
Dimers of D76N-β2-microglobulin display potent antiamyloid aggregation activitySelf-association of WT β2-microglobulin (WT-β2m) into amyloid fibrils is associated with the disorder dialysis related amyloidosis. In the familial variant D76N-β2m, the single amino acid substitution enhances the aggregation propensity of the protein dramatically and gives rise to a disorder that is independent of renal dysfunction. Numerous biophysical and structural studies on WT- and D76N-β2m have been performed in order to better understand the structure and dynamics of the native proteins and their different potentials to aggregate into amyloid.
Macromolecular crowding amplifies allosteric regulation of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphataseT-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) is a negative regulator of T-cell receptor and oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and implicated in cancer and autoimmune disease. TC-PTP activity is modulated by an intrinsically disordered C-terminal region (IDR) and suppressed in cells under basal conditions. In vitro structural studies have shown that the dynamic reorganization of IDR around the catalytic domain, driven by electrostatic interactions, can lead to TC-PTP activity inhibition; however, the process has not been studied in cells.
Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum myosin B ATPase activity and structure in complex with the calmodulin-like domain of its light chain MLC-BMyosin B (MyoB) is a class 14 myosin expressed in all invasive stages of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. It is not associated with the glideosome complex that drives motility and invasion of host cells. During red blood cell invasion, MyoB remains at the apical tip of the merozoite but is no longer observed once invasion is completed. MyoB is not essential for parasite survival, but when it is knocked out, merozoites are delayed in the initial stages of red blood cell invasion, giving rise to a growth defect that correlates with reduced invasion success.
Structural studies of human fission protein FIS1 reveal a dynamic region important for GTPase DRP1 recruitment and mitochondrial fissionFission protein 1 (FIS1) and dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) were initially described as being evolutionarily conserved for mitochondrial fission, yet in humans the role of FIS1 in this process is unclear and disputed by many. In budding yeast where Fis1p helps to recruit the DRP1 ortholog from the cytoplasm to mitochondria for fission, an N-terminal “arm” of Fis1p is required for function. The yeast Fis1p arm interacts intramolecularly with a conserved tetratricopeptide repeat core and governs in vitro interactions with yeast DRP1.
Crystal structure of the collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase (C-P4H) catalytic domain complexed with PDI: Toward a model of the C-P4H α2β2 tetramerCollagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (C-P4H) are α2β2 tetramers, which catalyze the prolyl 4-hydroxylation of procollagen, allowing for the formation of the stable triple-helical collagen structure in the endoplasmic reticulum. The C-P4H α-subunit provides the N-terminal dimerization domain, the middle peptide-substrate-binding (PSB) domain, and the C-terminal catalytic (CAT) domain, whereas the β-subunit is identical to the enzyme protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). The structure of the N-terminal part of the α-subunit (N-terminal region and PSB domain) is known, but the structures of the PSB-CAT linker region and the CAT domain as well as its mode of assembly with the β/PDI subunit, are unknown.
Structural studies of SALL family protein zinc finger cluster domains in complex with DNA reveal preferential binding to an AATA tetranucleotide motifThe Spalt-like 4 transcription factor (SALL4) plays an essential role in controlling the pluripotent property of embryonic stem cells via binding to AT-rich regions of genomic DNA, but structural details on this binding interaction have not been fully characterized. Here, we present crystal structures of the zinc finger cluster 4 (ZFC4) domain of SALL4 (SALL4ZFC4) bound with different dsDNAs containing a conserved AT-rich motif. In the structures, two zinc fingers of SALL4ZFC4 recognize an AATA tetranucleotide.