Protein Structure and Folding
- Human ARID4A and ARID4B are homologous proteins that are important in controlling gene expression and epigenetic regulation but have distinct functions. Previous studies have shown that the N-terminal domain of ARID4A is an unusual interdigitated double Tudor domain with DNA-binding activity. However, how the Tudor domain of ARID4B differs from that of ARID4A remains unknown. Here, we found that the ARID4B Tudor domain has significantly weaker DNA affinity than the ARID4A Tudor domain despite sharing more than 80% sequence identity.
- Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) proteins are a family of ancient and conserved chaperones. Cysteine modifications have been widely detected among different Hsp70 family members in vivo, but their effects on Hsp70 structure and function are unclear. Here, we treated HeLa cells with diamide, which typically induces disulfide bond formation except in the presence of excess GSH, when glutathionylated cysteines predominate. We show that in these cells, HspA1A (hHsp70) undergoes reversible cysteine modifications, including glutathionylation, potentially at all five cysteine residues.
- The allosteric coupling of the highly conserved nucleotide- and substrate-binding domains of Hsp70 has been studied intensively. In contrast, the role of the disordered, highly variable C-terminal region of Hsp70 remains unclear. In many eukaryotic Hsp70s, the extreme C-terminal EEVD motif binds to the tetratricopeptide-repeat domains of Hsp70 co-chaperones. Here, we discovered that the TVEEVD sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic Hsp70 (Ssa1) functions as a SUMO-interacting motif. A second C-terminal motif of ∼15 amino acids between the α-helical lid and the extreme C terminus, previously identified in bacterial and eukaryotic organellar Hsp70s, is known to enhance chaperone function by transiently interacting with folding clients.