Protein Structure and Folding
- Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells are a population of innate like T lymphocytes that rapidly respond to α-GalCer presented by CD1d via the production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While developing novel α-GalCer analogs that were meant to be utilized as potential adjuvants because of their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Th1 skewers), we generated α-galactosylsphingamides (αGSA). Surprisingly, αGSAs are not potent antigens in vivo despite their strong T-cell receptor (TCR)–binding affinities.
- Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the CD1d molecule (CD1d). They rapidly respond to antigen challenge and can activate both innate and adaptive immune cells. To study the role of antigen presentation in NKT cell activation, previous studies have developed several anti-CD1d antibodies that block CD1d binding to T-cell receptors (TCRs). Antibodies that are specific to both CD1d and the presented antigen can only be used to study the function of only a limited number of antigens.