Protein Structure and Folding
A structurally preserved allosteric site in the MIF superfamily affects enzymatic activity and CD74 activation in D-dopachrome tautomeraseThe macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) family of cytokines contains multiple ligand-binding sites and mediates immunomodulatory processes through an undefined mechanism(s). Previously, we reported a dynamic relay connecting the MIF catalytic site to an allosteric site at its solvent channel. Despite structural and functional similarity, the MIF homolog D-dopachrome tautomerase (also called MIF-2) has low sequence identity (35%), prompting the question of whether this dynamic regulatory network is conserved.
Separating cytokine twins with a small moleculeThe cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been characterized as a key immunomodulator and mediator of various diseases. Small molecule inhibitors based on the conserved enzymatic pocket of MIF have been valuable in elucidating MIF mechanisms and developing translational strategies. In contrast, our mechanistic understanding of the MIF homolog MIF-2/d-dopachrome tautomerase (d-DT) and its clinical translation has been hampered, partly because MIF-2–selective inhibitors have been elusive.