Protein Structure and Folding
A terminal α3-galactose modification regulates an E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit in Toxoplasma gondiiSkp1, a subunit of E3 Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein ubiquitin ligases, is modified by a prolyl hydroxylase that mediates O2 regulation of the social amoeba Dictyostelium and the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The full effect of hydroxylation requires modification of the hydroxyproline by a pentasaccharide that, in Dictyostelium, influences Skp1 structure to favor assembly of Skp1/F-box protein subcomplexes. In Toxoplasma, the presence of a contrasting penultimate sugar assembled by a different glycosyltransferase enables testing of the conformational control model.
Unconventional Peptide Presentation by Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I Allele HLA-A*02:01: BREAKING CONFINEMENTPeptide antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins initiates CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity against pathogens and cancers. MHC I molecules typically bind peptides with 9 amino acids in length with both ends tucked inside the major A and F binding pockets. It has been known for a while that longer peptides can also bind by either bulging out of the groove in the middle of the peptide or by binding in a zigzag fashion inside the groove. In a recent study, we identified an alternative binding conformation of naturally occurring peptides from Toxoplasma gondii bound by HLA-A*02:01.