Protein Structure and Folding
- Chaperones of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family engage in protein–protein interactions with many cochaperones. One “hotspot” for cochaperone binding is the EEVD motif, found at the extreme C terminus of cytoplasmic Hsp70s. This motif is known to bind tetratricopeptide repeat domain cochaperones, such as the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP. In addition, the EEVD motif also interacts with a structurally distinct domain that is present in class B J-domain proteins, such as DnaJB4. These observations suggest that CHIP and DnaJB4 might compete for binding to Hsp70’s EEVD motif; however, the molecular determinants of such competition are not clear.
- Overexpression and aggregation of α-synuclein (ASyn) are linked to the onset and pathology of Parkinson’s disease and related synucleinopathies. Elevated levels of the stress-induced chaperone Hsp70 protect against ASyn misfolding and ASyn-driven neurodegeneration in cell and animal models, yet there is minimal mechanistic understanding of this important protective pathway. It is generally assumed that Hsp70 binds to ASyn using its canonical and promiscuous substrate-binding cleft to limit aggregation.
- The molecular chaperones are central mediators of protein homeostasis. In that role, they engage in widespread protein–protein interactions (PPIs) with each other and with their “client” proteins. Together, these PPIs form the backbone of a network that ensures proper vigilance over the processes of protein folding, trafficking, quality control, and degradation. The core chaperones, such as the heat shock proteins Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90, are widely expressed in most tissues, yet there is growing evidence that the PPIs among them may be re-wired in disease conditions.
- Hsp70 chaperones bind to various protein substrates for folding, trafficking, and degradation. Considerable structural information is available about how prokaryotic Hsp70 (DnaK) binds substrates, but less is known about mammalian Hsp70s, of which there are 13 isoforms encoded in the human genome. Here, we report the interaction between the human Hsp70 isoform heat shock cognate 71-kDa protein (Hsc70 or HSPA8) and peptides derived from the microtubule-associated protein Tau, which is linked to Alzheimer's disease.
- Protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are an important category of putative drug targets. Improvements in high-throughput screening (HTS) have significantly accelerated the discovery of inhibitors for some categories of PPIs. However, methods suitable for screening multiprotein complexes (e.g. those composed of three or more different components) have been slower to emerge. Here, we explored an approach that uses reconstituted multiprotein complexes (RMPCs). As a model system, we chose heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), which is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that interacts with co-chaperones, including DnaJA2 and BAG2.
- Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp90 are molecular chaperones that play essential roles in tumor growth by stabilizing pro-survival client proteins. However, although the development of Hsp90 inhibitors has benefited from the identification of clients, such as Raf-1 proto-oncogene, Ser/Thr kinase (RAF1), that are particularly dependent on this chaperone, no equivalent clients for Hsp70 have been reported. Using chemical probes and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, we found here that the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, including c-IAP1 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), are obligate Hsp70 clients that are rapidly (within ˜3–12 h) lost after inhibition of Hsp70 but not of Hsp90.
- Heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) regulates protein homeostasis through its reversible interactions with client proteins. Hsc70 has two major domains: a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD), that hydrolyzes ATP, and a substrate-binding domain (SBD), where clients are bound. Members of the BAG family of co-chaperones, including Bag1 and Bag3, are known to accelerate release of both ADP and client from Hsc70. The release of nucleotide is known to be mediated by interactions between the conserved BAG domain and the Hsc70 NBD.
- The constitutively expressed heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsc70) is a major chaperone protein responsible for maintaining proteostasis, yet how its structure translates into functional decisions regarding client fate is still unclear. We previously showed that Hsc70 preserved aberrant Tau, but it remained unknown if selective inhibition of the activity of this Hsp70 isoform could facilitate Tau clearance. Using single point mutations in the nucleotide binding domain, we assessed the effect of several mutations on the functions of human Hsc70.