Protein Structure and Folding
- Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs) are markers of cancer and promote tumor growth. They have been implicated in a variety of biochemical pathways but the physiologically relevant target of phosphatase activity has eluded 20 years of investigation. Here, we show that PRL3 catalytic activity is not required in a mouse model of metastasis. PRL3 binds and inhibits CNNM4, a membrane protein associated with magnesium transport. Analysis of PRL3 mutants specifically defective in either CNNM-binding or phosphatase activity demonstrate that CNNM binding is necessary and sufficient to promote tumor metastasis.
- Proteins of the cyclin M family (CNNMs; also called ancient conserved domain proteins, or ACDPs) are represented by four integral membrane proteins that have been proposed to function as Mg2+ transporters. CNNMs are associated with a number of genetic diseases affecting ion movement and cancer via their association with highly oncogenic phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs). Structurally, CNNMs contain an N-terminal extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain (DUF21), and a large cytosolic region containing a cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) domain and a putative cyclic nucleotide–binding homology (CNBH) domain.
- Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is a neurodegenerative disease that is caused by mutations in the SACS gene. The product of this gene is a very large 520-kDa cytoplasmic protein, sacsin, with a ubiquitin-like (Ubl) domain at the N terminus followed by three large sacsin internal repeat (SIRPT) supradomains and C-terminal J and HEPN domains. The SIRPTs are predicted to contain Hsp90-like domains, suggesting a potential chaperone activity. In this work, we report the structures of the Hsp90-like Sr1 domain of SIRPT1 and the N-terminal Ubl domain determined at 1.55- and 2.1-Å resolutions, respectively.
- Rab GTPases are key regulators of membrane trafficking, and many are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors bearing a differentially expressed in normal and neoplastic cells (DENN) domain. By activating the small GTPase Rab12, DENN domain–containing protein 3 (DENND3) functions in autophagy. Here, we identified a structural domain (which we name PHenn) containing a pleckstrin homology subdomain that binds actin and is required for DENND3 function in autophagy. We found that a hydrophobic patch on an extended β-turn of the PHenn domain mediates an intramolecular interaction with the DENN domain of DENND3.
- The enzyme UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT) mediates quality control of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum by attaching glucose to N-linked glycan of misfolded proteins. As a sensor, UGGT ensures that misfolded proteins are recognized by the lectin chaperones and do not leave the secretory pathway. The structure of UGGT and the mechanism of its selectivity for misfolded proteins have been unknown for 25 years. Here, we used negative-stain electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering to determine the structure of UGGT from Drosophila melanogaster at 18-Å resolution.
- Calreticulin is a lectin chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum that interacts with newly synthesized glycoproteins by binding to Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharides as well as to the polypeptide chain. In vitro, the latter interaction potently suppresses the aggregation of various non-glycosylated proteins. Although the lectin-oligosaccharide association is well understood, the polypeptide-based interaction is more controversial because the binding site on calreticulin has not been identified, and its significance in the biogenesis of glycoproteins in cells remains unknown.
- Background: lpg1496 is a member of the SidE family of Legionella pneumophila and involved in bacterial virulence.Results: The three domains of lpg1496 have been crystallized and characterized in nucleotide-bound and free states.Conclusion: The effector lpg1496 is likely involved in nucleotide metabolism.Significance: This is the first structural characterization of KLAMP and SidE domains.
- Background: Paip2 and GW182 are translation effectors that interact with the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR5.Results: The MLLE domain of UBR5 interacts with GW182, recruits Paip2 for ubiquitination, and interacts with the catalytic HECT domain of UBR5.Conclusion: The MLLE domain of UBR5 regulates inter- and intramolecular interactions in UBR5.Significance: The MLLE/HECT interaction in UBR5 may regulate ubiquitin transfer catalyzed by the HECT domain.