Protein Structure and Folding
- The E-protein transcription factors guide immune cell differentiation, with E12 and E47 (hereafter called E2A) being essential for B-cell specification and maturation. E2A and the oncogenic chimera E2A-PBX1 contain three transactivation domains (ADs), with AD1 and AD2 having redundant, independent, and cooperative functions in a cell-dependent manner. AD1 and AD2 both mediate their functions by binding to the KIX domain of the histone acetyltransferase paralogues CREB-binding protein (CBP) and E1A-binding protein P300 (p300).
- The cellulosome is a remarkably intricate multienzyme nanomachine produced by anaerobic bacteria to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. Cellulosome assembly is mediated through binding of enzyme-borne dockerin modules to cohesin modules of the primary scaffoldin subunit. The anaerobic bacterium Acetivibrio cellulolyticus produces a highly intricate cellulosome comprising an adaptor scaffoldin, ScaB, whose cohesins interact with the dockerin of the primary scaffoldin (ScaA) that integrates the cellulosomal enzymes.
- BH0236 from Bacillus halodurans is a multimodular β-1,3-glucanase comprising an N-terminal family 81 glycoside hydrolase catalytic module, an internal family 6 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) that binds the nonreducing end of β-1,3-glucan chains, and an uncharacterized C-terminal module classified into CBM family 56. Here, we determined that this latter CBM, BhCBM56, bound the soluble β-1,3-glucan laminarin with a dissociation constant (Kd) of ∼26 μm and displayed higher affinity for insoluble β-1,3-glucans with Kd values of ∼2–10 μm but lacked affinity for β-1,3-glucooligosaccharides.
- The assembly of one of Nature's most elaborate multienzyme complexes, the cellulosome, results from the binding of enzyme-borne dockerins to reiterated cohesin domains located in a non-catalytic primary scaffoldin. Generally, dockerins present two similar cohesin-binding interfaces that support a dual binding mode. The dynamic integration of enzymes in cellulosomes, afforded by the dual binding mode, is believed to incorporate additional flexibility in highly populated multienzyme complexes. Ruminococcus flavefaciens, the primary degrader of plant structural carbohydrates in the rumen of mammals, uses a portfolio of more than 220 different dockerins to assemble the most intricate cellulosome known to date.
- Myosin light chains are key regulators of class 1 myosins and typically comprise two domains, with calmodulin being the archetypal example. They bind IQ motifs within the myosin neck region and amplify conformational changes in the motor domain. A single lobe light chain, myosin light chain C (MlcC), was recently identified and shown to specifically bind to two sequentially divergent IQ motifs of the Dictyostelium myosin-1C. To provide a molecular basis of this interaction, the structures of apo-MlcC and a 2:1 MlcC·myosin-1C neck complex were determined.
- Protein-protein interactions play a pivotal role in the assembly of the cellulosome, one of nature's most intricate nanomachines dedicated to the depolymerization of complex carbohydrates. The integration of cellulosomal components usually occurs through the binding of type I dockerin modules located at the C terminus of the enzymes to cohesin modules located in the primary scaffoldin subunit. Cellulosomes are typically recruited to the cell surface via type II cohesin-dockerin interactions established between primary and cell-surface anchoring scaffoldin subunits.