Protein Synthesis and Degradation
Recognition of 3′ nucleotide context and stop codon readthrough are determined during mRNA translation elongationThe nucleotide context surrounding stop codons significantly affects the efficiency of translation termination. In eukaryotes, various 3′ contexts that are unfavorable for translation termination have been described; however, the exact molecular mechanism that mediates their effects remains unknown. In this study, we used a reconstituted mammalian translation system to examine the efficiency of stop codons in different contexts, including several previously described weak 3′ stop codon contexts.
Polyadenylate-binding protein–interacting proteins PAIP1 and PAIP2 affect translation terminationPolyadenylate-binding protein (PABP) stimulates translation termination via interaction of its C-terminal domain with eukaryotic polypeptide chain release factor, eRF3. Additionally, two other proteins, poly(A)-binding protein-interacting proteins 1 and 2 (PAIP1 and PAIP2), bind the same domain of PABP and regulate its translation-related activity. To study the biochemistry of eRF3 and PAIP1/2 competition for PABP binding, we quantified the effects of PAIPs on translation termination in the presence or absence of PABP.
Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) catalyzes reverse translocation of the eukaryotic ribosomeDuring protein synthesis, a ribosome moves along the mRNA template and, using aminoacyl-tRNAs, decodes the template nucleotide triplets to assemble a protein amino acid sequence. This movement is accompanied by shifting of mRNA–tRNA complexes within the ribosome in a process called translocation. In living cells, this process proceeds in a unidirectional manner, bringing the ribosome to the 3′ end of mRNA, and is catalyzed by the GTPase translation elongation factor 2 (EF-G in prokaryotes and eEF2 in eukaryotes).