Protein Synthesis and Degradation
- Many secretory proteins are activated by cleavage at specific sites. The proprotein convertases (PCs) form a family of nine secretory subtilisin-like serine proteases, seven of which cleave at specific basic residues within the trans-Golgi network, granules, or at the cell surface/endosomes. The seventh member, PC7, is a type-I transmembrane (TM) protein with a 97-residue–long cytosolic tail (CT). PC7 sheds human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1) into soluble shTfR1 in endosomes. To better understand the physiological roles of PC7, here we focused on the relationship between the CT-regulated trafficking of PC7 and its ability to shed hTfR1.
- Protein C, a secretory vitamin K-dependent anticoagulant serine protease, inactivates factors Va/VIIIa. It is exclusively synthesized in liver hepatocytes as an inactive zymogen (proprotein C). In humans, thrombin cleavage of the propeptide at PR221↓ results in activated protein C (APC; residues 222–461). However, the propeptide is also cleaved by a furin-like proprotein convertase(s) (PCs) at KKRSHLKR199↓ (underlined basic residues critical for the recognition by PCs), but the order of cleavage is unknown.
- The mechanism of LDL receptor (LDLR) degradation mediated by the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been extensively studied; however, many steps within this process remain unclear and still require characterization. Recent studies have shown that PCSK9 lacking its Cys/His-rich domain can still promote LDLR internalization, but the complex does not reach the lysosome suggesting the presence of an additional interaction partner(s). In this study we carried out an unbiased screening approach to identify PCSK9-interacting proteins in the HepG2 cells' secretome using co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry analyses.