Protein Synthesis and Degradation
Diptoindonesin G is a middle domain HSP90 modulator for cancer treatmentHSP90 inhibitors can target many oncoproteins simultaneously, but none have made it through clinical trials due to dose-limiting toxicity and induction of heat shock response, leading to clinical resistance. We identified diptoindonesin G (dip G) as an HSP90 modulator that can promote degradation of HSP90 clients by binding to the middle domain of HSP90 (Kd = 0.13 ± 0.02 μM) without inducing heat shock response. This is likely because dip G does not interfere with the HSP90–HSF1 interaction like N-terminal inhibitors, maintaining HSF1 in a transcriptionally silent state.
Differential contributions of the proteasome, autophagy, and chaperones to the clearance of arsenite-induced protein aggregates in yeastThe poisonous metalloid arsenite induces widespread misfolding and aggregation of nascent proteins in vivo, and this mode of toxic action might underlie its suspected role in the pathology of certain protein misfolding diseases. Evolutionarily conserved protein quality-control systems protect cells against arsenite-mediated proteotoxicity, and herein, we systematically assessed the contribution of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the autophagy-vacuole pathway, and chaperone-mediated disaggregation to the clearance of arsenite-induced protein aggregates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
A comprehensive set of ER protein disulfide isomerase family members supports the biogenesis of proinflammatory interleukin 12 family cytokinesCytokines of the interleukin 12 (IL-12) family are assembled combinatorially from shared α and β subunits. A common theme is that human IL-12 family α subunits remain incompletely structured in isolation until they pair with a designate β subunit. Accordingly, chaperones need to support and control specific assembly processes. It remains incompletely understood, which chaperones are involved in IL-12 family biogenesis. Here, we site-specifically introduce photocrosslinking amino acids into the IL-12 and IL-23 α subunits (IL-12α and IL-23α) for stabilization of transient chaperone–client complexes for mass spectrometry.
A method for the isolation and characterization of autophagic bodies from yeast provides a key tool to investigate cargos of autophagyAutophagy is a major cellular degradation pathway that is highly conserved among eukaryotes. The identification of cargos captured by autophagosomes is critical to our understanding of the physiological significance of autophagy in cells, but these studies can be challenging because autophagosomes disintegrate easily. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells deficient in the vacuolar lipase Atg15 accumulate autophagic bodies (ABs) within the vacuole following the induction of autophagy. As ABs contain cytosolic components including proteins, RNAs, and lipids, their purification allows the identification of material targeted by autophagy for degradation.
Heat shock protein Hspa13 regulates endoplasmic reticulum and cytosolic proteostasis through modulation of protein translocationMost eukaryotic secretory proteins are cotranslationally translocated through Sec61 into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Because these proteins have evolved to fold in the ER, their mistargeting is associated with toxicity. Genetic experiments have implicated the ER heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) Hspa13/STCH as involved in processing of nascent secretory proteins. Herein, we evaluate the role of Hspa13 in protein import and the maintenance of cellular proteostasis in human cells, primarily using the human embryonic kidney 293T cell line.
Structure of the drug target ClpC1 unfoldase in action provides insights on antibiotic mechanism of actionThe unfoldase ClpC1 is one of the most exciting drug targets against tuberculosis. This AAA+ unfoldase works in cooperation with the ClpP1P2 protease and is the target of at least four natural product antibiotics: cyclomarin, ecumicin, lassomycin, and rufomycin. Although these molecules are promising starting points for drug development, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of a middle domain mutant, we determined the first structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpC1 in its apo, cyclomarin-, and ecumicin-bound states via cryo-EM.
α-synuclein buildup is alleviated via ESCRT-dependent endosomal degradation brought about by p38MAPK inhibition in cells expressing p25αα-synucleinopathy is driven by an imbalance of synthesis and degradation of α-synuclein (αSyn), causing a build up of αSyn aggregates and post-translationally modified species, which not only interfere with normal cellular metabolism but also by their secretion propagates the disease. Therefore, a better understanding of αSyn degradation pathways is needed to address α-synucleinopathy. Here, we used the nerve growth factor–differentiated catecholaminergic PC12 neuronal cell line, which was conferred α-synucleinopathy by inducible expression of αSyn and tubulin polymerization-promoting protein p25α.
Mutations of Rad6 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes at alanine-126 in helix-3 affect ubiquitination activity and decrease enzyme stabilityRad6, an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme conserved from yeast to humans, functions in transcription, genome maintenance, and proteostasis. The contributions of many conserved secondary structures of Rad6 and its human homologs UBE2A and UBE2B to their biological functions are not understood. A mutant RAD6 allele with a missense substitution at alanine-126 (A126) of helix-3 that causes defects in telomeric gene silencing, DNA repair, and protein degradation was reported over 2 decades ago. Here, using a combination of genetics, biochemical, biophysical, and computational approaches, we discovered that helix-3 A126 mutations compromise the ability of Rad6 to ubiquitinate target proteins without disrupting interactions with partner E3 ubiquitin-ligases that are required for their various biological functions in vivo.
Rate-limiting hydrolysis in ribosomal release reactions revealed by ester activationTranslation terminates by releasing the polypeptide chain in one of two chemical reactions catalyzed by the ribosome. Release is also a target for engineering, as readthrough of a stop codon enables incorporation of unnatural amino acids and treatment of genetic diseases. Hydrolysis of the ester bond of peptidyl-tRNA requires conformational changes of both a class I release factor (RF) protein and the peptidyl transferase center of a large subunit rRNA. The rate-limiting step was proposed to be hydrolysis at physiological pH and an RF conformational change at higher pH, but evidence was indirect.
A STUB1 ubiquitin ligase/CHIC2 protein complex negatively regulates the IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF cytokine receptor common β chain (CSF2RB) protein stabilityThe IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF family of cytokines play an essential role in the growth, differentiation, and effector functions of multiple hematopoietic cell types. Receptors in this family are composed of cytokine-specific α chains and a common β chain (CSF2RB), responsible for the majority of downstream signaling. CSF2RB abundance and stability influence the magnitude of the cellular response to cytokine stimulation, but the exact mechanisms of regulation are not well understood. Here, we use genetic screens in multiple cellular contexts and cytokine conditions to identify STUB1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, and CHIC2 as regulators of CSF2RB ubiquitination and protein stability.
Single molecule microscopy reveals diverse actions of substrate sequences that impair ClpX AAA+ ATPase functionAAA+ (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) proteases unfold substrate proteins by pulling the substrate polypeptide through a narrow pore. To overcome the barrier to unfolding, substrates may require extended association with the ATPase. Failed unfolding attempts can lead to a slip of grip, which may result in substrate dissociation, but how substrate sequence affects slippage is unresolved. Here, we measured single molecule dwell time using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, scoring time-dependent dissociation of engaged substrates from bacterial AAA+ ATPase unfoldase/translocase ClpX.
Quantitative interactome proteomics identifies a proteostasis network for GABAA receptorsGamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter-gated ion channels in the mammalian central nervous system. Maintenance of GABAA receptor protein homeostasis (proteostasis) in cells utilizing its interacting proteins is essential for the function of GABAA receptors. However, how the proteostasis network orchestrates GABAA receptor biogenesis in the endoplasmic reticulum is not well understood. Here, we employed a proteomics-based approach to systematically identify the interactomes of GABAA receptors.