Nutrient sensing is a critical cellular process controlling metabolism and signaling. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is the primary signaling hub for nutrient sensing and, when activated, stimulates anabolic processes while decreasing autophagic flux. mTORC1 receives nutrient status signals from intracellular amino acid sensors. One of these sensors, Sestrin-2, functions as an intracellular sensor of cytosolic leucine and inhibitor of mTORC1 activity. Genetic studies of Sestrin-2 have confirmed its critical role in regulating mTORC1 activity, especially in the case of leucine starvation.