Protein Synthesis and Degradation
- The nucleotide context surrounding stop codons significantly affects the efficiency of translation termination. In eukaryotes, various 3′ contexts that are unfavorable for translation termination have been described; however, the exact molecular mechanism that mediates their effects remains unknown. In this study, we used a reconstituted mammalian translation system to examine the efficiency of stop codons in different contexts, including several previously described weak 3′ stop codon contexts.
- Polyadenylate-binding protein (PABP) stimulates translation termination via interaction of its C-terminal domain with eukaryotic polypeptide chain release factor, eRF3. Additionally, two other proteins, poly(A)-binding protein-interacting proteins 1 and 2 (PAIP1 and PAIP2), bind the same domain of PABP and regulate its translation-related activity. To study the biochemistry of eRF3 and PAIP1/2 competition for PABP binding, we quantified the effects of PAIPs on translation termination in the presence or absence of PABP.
- During protein synthesis, a ribosome moves along the mRNA template and, using aminoacyl-tRNAs, decodes the template nucleotide triplets to assemble a protein amino acid sequence. This movement is accompanied by shifting of mRNA–tRNA complexes within the ribosome in a process called translocation. In living cells, this process proceeds in a unidirectional manner, bringing the ribosome to the 3′ end of mRNA, and is catalyzed by the GTPase translation elongation factor 2 (EF-G in prokaryotes and eEF2 in eukaryotes).