Protein Synthesis and Degradation
- The hepatic carbohydrate-recognizing asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGR1) mediates the endocytosis/lysosomal degradation of desialylated glycoproteins following binding to terminal galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine. Human heterozygote carriers of ASGR1 deletions exhibit ∼34% lower risk of coronary artery disease and ∼10% to 14% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol. Since the proprotein convertase PCSK9 is a major degrader of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), we investigated the degradation and functionality of LDLR and/or PCSK9 by endogenous/overexpressed ASGR1 using Western blot and immunofluorescence in HepG2-naïve and HepG2-PCSK9-knockout cells.
- Many secretory proteins are activated by cleavage at specific sites. The proprotein convertases (PCs) form a family of nine secretory subtilisin-like serine proteases, seven of which cleave at specific basic residues within the trans-Golgi network, granules, or at the cell surface/endosomes. The seventh member, PC7, is a type-I transmembrane (TM) protein with a 97-residue–long cytosolic tail (CT). PC7 sheds human transferrin receptor 1 (hTfR1) into soluble shTfR1 in endosomes. To better understand the physiological roles of PC7, here we focused on the relationship between the CT-regulated trafficking of PC7 and its ability to shed hTfR1.
- Protein C, a secretory vitamin K-dependent anticoagulant serine protease, inactivates factors Va/VIIIa. It is exclusively synthesized in liver hepatocytes as an inactive zymogen (proprotein C). In humans, thrombin cleavage of the propeptide at PR221↓ results in activated protein C (APC; residues 222–461). However, the propeptide is also cleaved by a furin-like proprotein convertase(s) (PCs) at KKRSHLKR199↓ (underlined basic residues critical for the recognition by PCs), but the order of cleavage is unknown.
- The mechanism of LDL receptor (LDLR) degradation mediated by the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been extensively studied; however, many steps within this process remain unclear and still require characterization. Recent studies have shown that PCSK9 lacking its Cys/His-rich domain can still promote LDLR internalization, but the complex does not reach the lysosome suggesting the presence of an additional interaction partner(s). In this study we carried out an unbiased screening approach to identify PCSK9-interacting proteins in the HepG2 cells' secretome using co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry analyses.
- Background It was reported that amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) increases PCSK9-mediated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) degradation, and sortilin facilitates PCSK9 secretion. Results APLP2 or sortilin deficiency/overexpression in cells/mice did not affect LDLR degradation by PCSK9. However, APLP2 binds sortilin, and PCSK9 enhances their degradation. Conclusion APLP2/sortilin are not required for PCSK9 activity on LDLR, but their interaction may modulate APLP2 functions. Significance APLP2 and sortilin do not affect LDLR levels.