The PDE6 mutation in the rd10 retinal degeneration mouse model causes protein mislocalization and instability and promotes cell death through increased ion influxThe retinal degeneration model rd10 contains a missense mutation of the catalytic PDE6 β subunit, which hydrolyzes cGMP in response to light. This model produces cell death more slowly than others caused by PDE6 loss of function, making it of particular interest for studying potential therapeutics. We used morphology, biochemistry, and single-cell physiology to examine the mechanism of rd10 degeneration. Our results show that the mutation produces no alteration of Pde6b RNA but does dramatically decrease maximal and basal PDE6 activity, apparently caused by a decrease in protein stability and transport.
Guanylate cyclase–activating protein 2 contributes to phototransduction and light adaptation in mouse cone photoreceptorsLight adaptation of photoreceptor cells is mediated by Ca2+-dependent mechanisms. In darkness, Ca2+ influx through cGMP-gated channels into the outer segment of photoreceptors is balanced by Ca2+ extrusion via Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchangers (NCKXs). Light activates a G protein signaling cascade, which closes cGMP-gated channels and decreases Ca2+ levels in photoreceptor outer segment because of continuing Ca2+ extrusion by NCKXs. Guanylate cyclase–activating proteins (GCAPs) then up-regulate cGMP synthesis by activating retinal membrane guanylate cyclases (RetGCs) in low Ca2+.
Regulation of Mammalian Cone Phototransduction by Recoverin and Rhodopsin KinaseBackground: Calcium-mediated feedback to phototransduction is critical for modulating cone responses under different lighting conditions.Results: The calcium-binding protein recoverin potentiates dim light sensitivity, whereas increasing expression of its target, GRK1, delays response shutoff in cones.Conclusion: Recoverin and GRK1 levels modulate cone phototransduction.Significance: Cone pigment inactivation regulates cone responses in dim light but not in bright light.