Two clusters of surface-exposed amino acid residues enable high-affinity binding of retinal degeneration-3 (RD3) protein to retinal guanylyl cyclaseRetinal degeneration-3 (RD3) protein protects photoreceptors from degeneration by preventing retinal guanylyl cyclase (RetGC) activation via calcium-sensing guanylyl cyclase–activating proteins (GCAP), and RD3 truncation causes severe congenital blindness in humans and other animals. The three-dimensional structure of RD3 has recently been established, but the molecular mechanisms of its inhibitory binding to RetGC remain unclear. Here, we report the results of probing 133 surface-exposed residues in RD3 by single substitutions and deletions to identify side chains that are critical for the inhibitory binding of RD3 to RetGC.
Retinal guanylyl cyclase activation by calcium sensor proteins mediates photoreceptor degeneration in an rd3 mouse model of congenital human blindnessDeficiency of RD3 (retinal degeneration 3) protein causes recessive blindness and photoreceptor degeneration in humans and in the rd3 mouse strain, but the disease mechanism is unclear. Here, we present evidence that RD3 protects photoreceptors from degeneration by competing with guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs), which are calcium sensor proteins for retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase (RetGC). RetGC activity in rd3/rd3 retinas was drastically reduced but stimulated by the endogenous GCAPs at low Ca2+ concentrations.
A G86R mutation in the calcium-sensor protein GCAP1 alters regulation of retinal guanylyl cyclase and causes dominant cone-rod degenerationThe guanylyl cyclase-activating protein, GCAP1, activates photoreceptor membrane guanylyl cyclase (RetGC) in the light, when free Ca2+ concentrations decline, and decelerates the cyclase in the dark, when Ca2+ concentrations rise. Here, we report a novel mutation, G86R, in the GCAP1 (GUCA1A) gene in a family with a dominant retinopathy. The G86R substitution in a “hinge” region connecting EF-hand domains 2 and 3 in GCAP1 strongly interfered with its Ca2+-dependent activator-to-inhibitor conformational transition.
Retinal degeneration 3 (RD3) protein, a retinal guanylyl cyclase regulator, forms a monomeric and elongated four-helix bundleRetinal degeneration 3 (RD3) protein promotes accumulation of retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase (RetGC) in the photoreceptor outer segment and suppresses RetGC activation by guanylyl cyclase–activating proteins (GCAPs). Mutations truncating RD3 cause severe congenital blindness by preventing the inhibitory binding of RD3 to the cyclase. The high propensity of RD3 to aggregate in solution has prevented structural analysis. Here, we produced a highly soluble variant of human RD3 (residues 18–160) that is monomeric and can still bind and negatively regulate RetGC.
Guanylate cyclase–activating protein 2 contributes to phototransduction and light adaptation in mouse cone photoreceptorsLight adaptation of photoreceptor cells is mediated by Ca2+-dependent mechanisms. In darkness, Ca2+ influx through cGMP-gated channels into the outer segment of photoreceptors is balanced by Ca2+ extrusion via Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchangers (NCKXs). Light activates a G protein signaling cascade, which closes cGMP-gated channels and decreases Ca2+ levels in photoreceptor outer segment because of continuing Ca2+ extrusion by NCKXs. Guanylate cyclase–activating proteins (GCAPs) then up-regulate cGMP synthesis by activating retinal membrane guanylate cyclases (RetGCs) in low Ca2+.
The R838S Mutation in Retinal Guanylyl Cyclase 1 (RetGC1) Alters Calcium Sensitivity of cGMP Synthesis in the Retina and Causes Blindness in Transgenic MiceSubstitutions of Arg838 in the dimerization domain of a human retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase 1 (RetGC1) linked to autosomal dominant cone-rod degeneration type 6 (CORD6) change RetGC1 regulation in vitro by Ca2+. In addition, we find that R838S substitution makes RetGC1 less sensitive to inhibition by retinal degeneration-3 protein (RD3). We selectively expressed human R838S RetGC1 in mouse rods and documented the decline in rod vision and rod survival. To verify that changes in rods were specifically caused by the CORD6 mutation, we used for comparison cones, which in the same mice did not express R838S RetGC1 from the transgenic construct.
Functional Study and Mapping Sites for Interaction with the Target Enzyme in Retinal Degeneration 3 (RD3) ProteinRetinal degeneration 3 (RD3) protein, essential for normal expression of retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase (RetGC) in photoreceptor cells, blocks RetGC catalytic activity and stimulation by guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). In a mouse retina, RD3 inhibited both RetGC1 and RetGC2 isozymes. Photoreceptors in the rd3/rd3 mouse retinas lacking functional RD3 degenerated more severely than in the retinas lacking both RetGC isozymes, consistent with a hypothesis that the inhibitory activity of RD3 has a functional role in photoreceptors.
Structure of Guanylyl Cyclase Activator Protein 1 (GCAP1) Mutant V77E in a Ca2+-free/Mg2+-bound Activator StateGCAP1, a member of the neuronal calcium sensor subclass of the calmodulin superfamily, confers Ca2+-sensitive activation of retinal guanylyl cyclase 1 (RetGC1). We present NMR resonance assignments, residual dipolar coupling data, functional analysis, and a structural model of GCAP1 mutant (GCAP1V77E) in the Ca2+-free/Mg2+-bound state. NMR chemical shifts and residual dipolar coupling data reveal Ca2+-dependent differences for residues 170–174. An NMR-derived model of GCAP1V77E contains Mg2+ bound at EF2 and looks similar to Ca2+ saturated GCAP1 (root mean square deviations = 2.0 Å).
Dimerization Domain of Retinal Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase 1 (RetGC1) Is an Essential Part of Guanylyl Cyclase-activating Protein (GCAP) Binding InterfaceBackground: GCAPs regulate photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase RetGC1 but not hormone receptor guanylyl cyclase NPRA.Results: Mutations in RetGC1 dimerization domain disrupt GCAP1 and GCAP2 binding.Conclusion: Met823 in dimerization domain strongly contributes to its specificity in forming GCAP binding interface.Significance: Congenital blindness-causing mutation in the neighboring residue prohibits GCAP binding.
Evaluating the Role of Retinal Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase 1 (RetGC1) Domains in Binding Guanylyl Cyclase-activating Proteins (GCAPs)Background: GCAP1 and GCAP2 regulate cGMP synthesis by RetGC1 in photoreceptors.Results: GCAPs compete for binding to RetGC1 in biochemical assays and in HEK293 cells co-expressing fluorescently labeled GCAPs with different forms of RetGC1.Conclusion: The GCAP1 and GCAP2 binding site(s) overlaps within the kinase homology and/or dimerization domains of RetGC1.Significance: RetGC1 and GCAPs contribute to normal vision and congenital blindness in humans.