- Recent studies identified a missense mutation in the gene coding for G protein–coupled receptor kinase 6 (GRK6) that segregates with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To better understand how GRK6 might be involved in T2D, we used pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockdown in the mouse β-cell line, MIN6, to determine whether GRK6 regulates insulin dynamics. We show inhibition of GRK5 and GRK6 increased insulin secretion but reduced insulin processing while GRK6 knockdown revealed these same processing defects with reduced levels of cellular insulin.
- WHIM syndrome is a rare immunodeficiency disorder that is characterized by warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis. While several gain-of-function mutations that lead to C-terminal truncations, frame shifts and point mutations in the chemokine receptor CXCR4 have been identified in WHIM syndrome patients, the functional effect of these mutations are not fully understood. Here, we report on a new WHIM syndrome mutation that results in a frame shift within the codon for Ser339 (S339fs5) and compare the properties of S339fs5 with wild-type CXCR4 and a previously identified WHIM syndrome mutant, R334X.
- G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate many animal behaviors. GPCR signaling is mediated by agonist-promoted interactions of GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins, GPCR kinases (GRKs), and arrestins. To further elucidate the role of GRKs in regulating GPCR-mediated behaviors, we utilized the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. Our studies demonstrate that grk-2 loss-of-function strains are egg laying-defective and contain low levels of serotonin (5-HT) and high levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA).
- Arrestin domain-containing protein 3 (ARRDC3) is a member of the mammalian α-arrestin family, which is predicted to share similar tertiary structure with visual-/β-arrestins and also contains C-terminal PPXY motifs that mediate interaction with E3 ubiquitin ligases. Recently, ARRDC3 has been proposed to play a role in regulating the trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors, although mechanistic insight into this process is lacking. Here, we focused on characterizing the role of ARRDC3 in regulating the trafficking of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR).
- Background: GRK5 is implicated in several human pathologies, but relatively little is known about its structure and function.Results: High resolution crystal structures of human GRK5 with AMP-PNP and sangivamycin were determined.Conclusion: GRK5 is found in a partially closed state with its kinase domain C-tail forming novel interactions with nucleotide and the N-lobe.Significance: The GRK5 structure provides important insight into its function.