- Metabolic reprogramming has been shown to occur in uveal melanoma (UM), the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Mechanisms driving metabolic reprogramming in UM are poorly understood. Elucidation of these mechanisms could inform development of new therapeutic strategies for metastatic UM, which has poor prognosis because existing therapies are ineffective. Here, we determined whether metabolic reprogramming is driven by constitutively active mutant α-subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins Gq or G11 (Gq/11), the oncogenic drivers in ∼90% of UM patients.
- Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Nearly half of UM patients develop metastatic disease and often succumb within months because effective therapy is lacking. A novel therapeutic approach has been suggested by the discovery that UM cell lines driven by mutant constitutively active Gq or G11 can be targeted by FR900359 (FR) or YM-254890, which are bioavailable, selective inhibitors of the Gq/11/14 subfamily of heterotrimeric G proteins. Here, we have addressed the therapeutic potential of FR for UM.
- Regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) controls signaling by receptors coupled to the Gq/11 class heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS2 deficiency causes several phenotypes in mice and occurs in several diseases, including hypertension in which a proteolytically unstable RGS2 mutant has been reported. However, the mechanisms and functions of RGS2 proteolysis remain poorly understood. Here we addressed these questions by identifying degradation signals in RGS2, and studying dynamic regulation of Gq/11-evoked Ca2+ signaling and vascular contraction.
- The R7 regulator of G protein signaling family (R7-RGS) critically regulates nervous system development and function. Mice lacking all R7-RGS subtypes exhibit diverse neurological phenotypes, and humans bearing mutations in the retinal R7-RGS isoform RGS9-1 have vision deficits. Although each R7-RGS subtype forms heterotrimeric complexes with Gβ5 and R7-RGS-binding protein (R7BP) that regulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling by accelerating deactivation of Gi/o α-subunits, several neurological phenotypes of R7-RGS knock-out mice are not readily explained by dysregulated Gi/o signaling.