- Trio is a large and highly conserved metazoan signaling scaffold that contains two Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) modules, TrioN and TrioC, selective for Rac and RhoA GTPases, respectively. The GEF activities of TrioN and TrioC are implicated in several cancers, especially uveal melanoma. However, little is known about how these modules operate in the context of larger fragments of Trio. Here we show via negative stain electron microscopy that the N-terminal region of Trio is extended and could thus serve as a rigid spacer between the N-terminal putative lipid-binding domain and TrioN, whereas the C-terminal half of Trio seems globular.
- Gα proteins promote dynamic adjustments of cell shape directed by actin-cytoskeleton reorganization via their respective RhoGEF effectors. For example, Gα13 binding to the RGS-homology (RH) domains of several RH-RhoGEFs allosterically activates these proteins, causing them to expose their catalytic Dbl-homology (DH)/pleckstrin-homology (PH) regions, which triggers downstream signals. However, whether additional Gα proteins might directly regulate the RH-RhoGEFs was not known. To explore this question, we first examined the morphological effects of expressing shortened RH-RhoGEF DH/PH constructs of p115RhoGEF/ARHGEF1, PDZ-RhoGEF (PRG)/ARHGEF11, and LARG/ARHGEF12.
- G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest gene family of cell membrane–associated molecules mediating signal transmission, and their involvement in key physiological functions is well-established. The ability of GPCRs to regulate a vast array of fundamental biological processes, such as cardiovascular functions, immune responses, hormone and enzyme release from endocrine and exocrine glands, neurotransmission, and sensory perception (e.g. vision, odor, and taste), is largely due to the diversity of these receptors and the layers of their downstream signaling circuits.
- Regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibit its kinase subunits. Intriguingly, their potential as cAMP-dependent signal transducers remains uncharacterized. We recently reported that type I PKA regulatory subunits (RIα) interact with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate–dependent Rac exchange factor 1 (P-REX1), a chemotactic Rac guanine exchange factor (RacGEF). Because P-REX1 is known to be phosphorylated and inhibited by PKA, its interaction with RIα suggests that PKA regulatory and catalytic subunits may fine-tune P-REX1 activity or those of its target pools.
- G protein–coupled receptors stimulate Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors that promote mammalian cell migration. Rac and Rho GTPases exert opposing effects on cell morphology and are stimulated downstream of Gβγ and Gα12/13 or Gαq, respectively. These Gα subunits might in turn favor Rho pathways by preventing Gβγ signaling to Rac. Here, we investigated whether Gβγ signaling to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate–dependent Rac exchange factor 1 (P-REX1), a key Gβγ chemotactic effector, is directly controlled by Rho-activating Gα subunits.