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Pinene cyclases I and II. Two enzymes from sage (Salvia officinalis) which catalyze stereospecific cyclizations of geranyl pyrophosphate to monoterpene olefins of opposite configuration.

Open AccessPublished:January 25, 1984DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(17)43520-4
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      A soluble enzyme preparation from immature sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves has been shown to catalyze the cation-dependent cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to the isomeric monoterpene olefins (+/-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene and to lesser amounts of camphene and limonene (Gambliel, H., and Croteau, R. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 2335-2342). This preparation was fractionated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 to afford two regions of enzymic activity termed geranyl pyrophosphate:pinene cyclase I (Mr approximately equal to 96,000), which catalyzed the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to the bicyclic olefin (+)-alpha-pinene, and to smaller quantities of the rearranged olefin (+)-camphene and the monocyclic olefin (+)-limonene, and geranyl pyrophosphate:pinene cyclase II (Mr approximately equal to 55,000), which transformed the acyclic precursor to (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene, as well as to (-)-camphene, (-)-limonene, and the acyclic olefin myrcene. The multiple olefin biosynthetic activities co-purified with pinene cyclase I on four subsequent chromatographic and electrophoretic steps, and the ability to cyclize geranyl pyrophosphate and the related allylic pyrophosphates neryl pyrophosphate and linalyl pyrophosphate was likewise coincident throughout purification. Fractionation of pinene cyclase II by an identical sequence showed that the activities for the synthesis of the stereochemically related (-)-olefins co-purified, as did the ability to utilize the three acyclic precursors. The general properties of cyclase I and cyclase II were determined, and a scheme for the biosynthesis of the pinenes and related monoterpene olefins was proposed.

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