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Control of glucose utilization in working perfused rat heart.

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      Metabolic control analyses of glucose utilization were performed for four groups of working rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 10 mM glucose only, or with the addition of 4 mM D-beta-hydroxybutyrate/1 mM acetoacetate, 100 nM insulin (0.05 unit/ml), or both. Net glycogen breakdown occurred in the glucose group only and was converted to net glycogen synthesis in the presence of all additions. The flux of [2-3H]glucose through P-glucoisomerase (EC 5.3.1.9) was reduced with ketones, elevated with insulin, and unchanged with the combination. Net glycolytic flux was reduced in the presence of ketones and the combination. The flux control coefficients were determined for the portion of the pathway involving glucose transport to the branches of glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Major control was divided between the glucose transporter and hexokinase (EC 2.7.1.1) in the glucose group. The distribution of the control was slightly shifted to hexokinase with ketones, and control at the glucose transport step was abolished in the presence of insulin. Analysis of the pathway from 3-P-glycerate to pyruvate determined that the major control was shared by enolase (EC 4.2.1.1) and pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) in the glucose group. Addition of ketones, insulin, or the combination shifted the control to P-glycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1) and pyruvate kinase. These results illustrate that the control of the metabolic flux in glucose metabolism of rat heart is not exerted by a single enzyme but variably distributed among enzymes depending upon substrate availability, hormonal stimulation, or other changes of conditions.

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