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The antioxidant responsive element. Activation by oxidative stress and identification of the DNA consensus sequence required for functional activity

Open AccessPublished:June 25, 1991DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9258(18)99004-6
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      We have characterized further the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) identified in the 5'-flanking region of the rat glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene and the NAD(P)H:quinone reductase gene by mutational and deletion analyses. Our data suggest that the sequence, 5'-puGTGACNNNGC-3' 3'-pyCACTGNNNCG-5' where N is any nucleotide, represents the core sequence of the ARE required for transcriptional activation by phenolic antioxidants and metabolizable planar aromatic compounds (e.g. beta-naphthoflavone and 3-methylcholanthrene). We also have found that the ARE is responsive to hydrogen peroxide and phenolic antioxidants that undergo redox cycling. These latter data suggest that the ARE is responsive to reactive oxygen species and thus may represent part of a signal transduction pathway that allow eukaryotic cells to sense and respond to oxidative stress.

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