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Purification and localization of brain-type creatine kinase in sodium chloride transporting epithelia of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

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      The targeting of creatine kinase isoenzymes to specific sites within muscle cells provides a system for the regeneration of ATP in situ from ADP and creatine phosphate. We have recently reported the colocalization of brain-type (B) creatine kinase and the nonsarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the rat kidney, suggesting that creatine kinase may regenerate ATP for sodium transport (Friedman, D.L., and Perryman, M.B. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 22404-22410). In order to test the hypothesis regarding the association of B creatine kinase with sodium transport, we examined the creatine kinase enzymes in the rectal (salt-secreting) gland of the dogfish shark which contains high levels of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase. The creatine kinase isoform composition was determined by non-denaturing electrophoresis, immunoblotting, protein purification, and amino acid sequence analysis. The results demonstrate both B creatine kinase and mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins are present in the rectal gland, an isoform composition which is the same as in the mammalian kidney. By using a combination of chromatographic techniques, shark B creatine kinase was purified to homogeneity and partial sequence data was obtained from two cyanogen bromide peptide fragments. One of these fragments contains the active site and is identical at all sequenced residues with the corresponding region from the echinoderm sperm flagellar creatine kinase, and is 96% homologous with both chicken and rat B creatine kinase subunits. The other fragment corresponds to a region near the N-terminal of mammalian creatine kinases and is 89% homologous with B creatine kinase from chicken. The localization of these isoforms was examined by immunocytochemistry using subunit specific antisera. Mitochondrial creatine kinase and B creatine kinase immunoreactivity are detected in all tubules, and is restricted to the basal region of the cells, which is the site of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase. The conservation of creatine kinase isoform expression in excretory tissue, and the localization of creatine kinase immunoreactivity in the basal region of the tubule cells, demonstrate that subcellular compartmentation of B creatine kinase may underly the functional coupling of creatine kinase activity with sodium transport.

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