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Characterization of the human blood coagulation factor XII gene. Intron/exon gene organization and analysis of the 5'-flanking region.

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      A human genomic phage library was screened using a human factor XII cDNA as a hybridization probe. Two overlapping phage clones were isolated which contain the entire human factor XII gene. DNA sequence and restriction enzyme analysis of the clones indicate that the gene is approximately 12 kilobase pairs in size and is comprised of 13 introns and 14 exons. Exons 3-14 are contained in a genomic region of only 4.2 kilobase pairs with introns ranging in size from 80 to 554 base pairs. The coding sequence of factor XII consists of multiple putative domains that are homologous to putative domains found in fibronectin and tissue-type plasminogen activator. These regions were found as separate exons in the gene. The intron/exon gene organization is similar to the serine protease gene family of plasminogen activators and not to the clotting factor family. Analysis of the 5' end of the gene shows that it does not contain the typical TATA and CAAT sequences found in other genes. This is consistent with the finding that transcription of the gene is initiated at multiple sites.

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