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Inhibition of gluconeogenesis and lactate formation from pyruvate by N6, O2'-dibutyryl adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate.

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      N6,O2-Dibutyryl adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (Bt2cAMP) inhibits gluconeogenesis and lactate formation but increases ketogenesis by isolated liver cells incubated with high concentrations of pyruvate. The inhibitory effects can not be explained on the basis of an inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex nor by a change in the NAD+ oxidation-reduction potential of the mitochondrial compartment. Both oleate and 3-hydroxybutyrate substantially increase the rates of gluconeogenesis and lactate formation from pyruvate but do not overcome the inhibition caused by Bt2cAMP. A decreased effectiveness of pyruvate kinase is proposed to account for the inhibition of both gluconeogenesis and lactate formation by Bt2cAMP. This enzyme catalyzes a step required in the transfer of reducing equivalents from the mitochondrial compartment to the cytoplasm and participates in the formation of glucose and lactate from pyruvate by the overall reaction: 2 pyruvate- + 2 NADHmito + 4 ATP4- + 4 H2O leads to 1/2 glucose + lactate- + 2 NAD+ mito + 4 ADP3- + 4 HPO4(2)- + H+. Inhibition of pyruvate kinase promotes gluconeogenesis with most substrates but inhibits gluconeogenesis from pyruvate for want of cytoplasmic reducing equivalents.

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