Abbreviations:Ab (antibody), ASGR1 (asialoglycoprotein receptor 1), BMDM (bone marrow–derived macrophage), CLP (cecal ligation and puncture), IFN (interferon), IFNAR1 (IFN-α/β receptor 1), IL (interleukin), iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase), IRF (IFN regulatory factor), JAK (Janus kinase), LPS (lipopolysaccharide), mAb (monoclonal antibody), MFI (mean fluorescent intensity), Mkp (mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase), NO (nitric oxide), PD-1 (programmed death-1), PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1), PE (phycoerythrin), qRT–PCR (quantitative RT–PCR), STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha), TYK2 (tyrosine kinase 2)
- Salkowski C.A.
- Detore G.
- McNally R.
- van Rooijen N.
- Vogel S.N.
- Zhao Q.
- Shepherd E.G.
- Manson M.E.
- Nelin L.D.
- Sorokin A.
- Liu Y.
Mkp-1−/− mice exhibit significantly elevated PD-L1 expression relative to WT mice when infected with E. coli
Neutralization of PD-L1 in Mkp-1-deficient mice decreases bacterial burden but enhances inflammatory response and increases mortality
Enhanced PD-L1 expression in Mkp-1−/− mice after E. coli infection is mediated by type I IFN
- Stanciu L.A.
- Bellettato C.M.
- Laza-Stanca V.
- Coyle A.J.
- Papi A.
- Johnston S.L.
- Strausberg R.L.
- Feingold E.A.
- Grouse L.H.
- Derge J.G.
- Klausner R.D.
- Collins F.S.
- Wagner L.
- Shenmen C.M.
- Schuler G.D.
- Altschul S.F.
- Zeeberg B.
- Buetow K.H.
- Schaefer C.F.
- Bhat N.K.
- Hopkins R.F.
- et al.
The effects of PD-L1 neutralization on E. coli–infected Mkp-1−/− mice
Mechanism by which Mkp-1 deficiency enhances PD-L1 expression
E. coli infection
PD-L1 and IFNAR1 neutralization
Bacterial burden determination
Macrophage derivation, culture, and stimulation
Liver RNA-Seq analysis
Assessment of PD-L1 mRNA stability
Multiplex assessment for cytokines
Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry
Flow cytometry analysis
Conflict of interest
Funding and additional information
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