- Mammalian cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) reduces O2 to water in a bimetallic site including Fea3 and CuB giving intermediate molecules, termed A-, P-, F-, O-, E-, and R-forms. From the P-form on, each reaction step is driven by single-electron donations from cytochrome c coupled with the pumping of a single proton through the H-pathway, a proton-conducting pathway composed of a hydrogen-bond network and a water channel. The proton-gradient formed is utilized for ATP production by F-ATPase. For elucidation of the proton pumping mechanism, crystal structural determination of these intermediate forms is necessary.
- Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) reduces O2 to water, coupled with a proton-pumping process. The structure of the O2-reduction site of CcO contains two reducing equivalents, Fea32+ and CuB1+, and suggests that a peroxide-bound state (Fea33+–O−–O−–CuB2+) rather than an O2-bound state (Fea32+–O2) is the initial catalytic intermediate. Unexpectedly, however, resonance Raman spectroscopy results have shown that the initial intermediate is Fea32+–O2, whereas Fea33+–O−–O−–CuB2+ is undetectable. Based on X-ray structures of static noncatalytic CcO forms and mutation analyses for bovine CcO, a proton-pumping mechanism has been proposed.
- Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the terminal oxidase of cellular respiration, reducing O2 to water and pumping protons. X-ray structural features have suggested that CcO pumps protons via a mechanism involving electrostatic repulsions between pumping protons in the hydrogen-bond network of a proton-conducting pathway (the H-pathway) and net positive charges created upon oxidation of an iron site, heme a (Fea2+), for reduction of O2 at another iron site, heme a3 (Fea32+). The protons for pumping are transferred to the hydrogen-bond network from the N-side via the water channel of the H-pathway.
- Bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) pumps four proton equivalents per catalytic cycle through the H-pathway, a proton-conducting pathway, which includes a hydrogen bond network and a water channel operating in tandem. Protons are transferred by H3O+ through the water channel from the N-side into the hydrogen bond network, where they are pumped to the P-side by electrostatic repulsion between protons and net positive charges created at heme a as a result of electron donation to O2 bound to heme a3.
- To understand the roles of mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes, methods for consistently separating and preparing supercomplexes must be established. To this end, we solubilized supercomplexes from bovine heart mitochondria with digitonin and then replaced digitonin with amphipol (A8–35), an amphiphilic polymer. Afterward, supercomplexes were separated from other complexes by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Twenty-six grams of bovine myocardium yielded 3.2 mg of amphipol-stabilized supercomplex.