- G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) convert external stimuli into cellular signals through heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) and β-arrestins (βarrs). In a βarr-dependent signaling pathway, βarrs link GPCRs to various downstream signaling partners, such as the Raf–mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal–regulated kinase–extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade. Agonist-stimulated GPCR–βarr complexes have been shown to interact with C-Raf and are thought to initiate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway through simple tethering of these signaling partners.
- Unique among metazoan repressive histone methyltransferases, G9a and GLP, which chiefly target histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9), require dimerization for productive H3K9 mono (me1)- and dimethylation (me2) in vivo. Intriguingly, even though each enzyme can independently methylate H3K9, the predominant active form in vivo is a heterodimer of G9a and GLP. How dimerization influences the central H3K9 methyl binding (“reading”) and deposition (“writing”) activity of G9a and GLP and why heterodimerization is essential in vivo remains opaque.