- Ephrin-B signaling has been implicated in many normal and pathological processes, including neural crest development and tumor metastasis. We showed previously that proteolysis of ephrin-B ligands by the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM13 is necessary for canonical Wnt signal activation and neural crest induction in Xenopus, but it was unclear if these mechanisms are conserved in mammals. Here, we report that mammalian ADAM9 cleaves ephrin-B1 and ephrin-B2 and can substitute for Xenopus ADAM13 to induce the neural crest.
- Heme plays a critical role in catalyzing life-essential redox reactions in all cells, and its synthesis must be tightly balanced with cellular requirements. Heme synthesis in eukaryotes is tightly regulated by the mitochondrial AAA+ unfoldase CLPX (caseinolytic mitochondrial matrix peptidase chaperone subunit X), which promotes heme synthesis by activation of δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS/Hem1) in yeast and regulates turnover of ALAS1 in human cells. However, the specific mechanisms by which CLPX regulates heme synthesis are unclear.