- Glutamate acts at eight metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor subtypes expressed in a partially overlapping fashion in distinct brain circuits. Recent evidence indicates that specific mGlu receptor protomers can heterodimerize and that these heterodimers can exhibit different pharmacology when compared to their homodimeric counterparts. Group III mGlu agonist-induced suppression of evoked excitatory potentials and induction of long-term potentiation at Schaffer collateral-CA1 (SC-CA1) synapses in the rodent hippocampus can be blocked by the selective mGlu7 negative allosteric modulator (NAM), ADX71743.
- The parathyroid hormone (PTH)–related protein (PTHrP) is indispensable for the development of mammary glands, placental calcium ion transport, tooth eruption, bone formation and bone remodeling, and causes hypercalcemia in patients with malignancy. Although mature forms of PTHrP in the body consist of splice variants of 139, 141, and 173 amino acids, our current understanding on how endogenous PTHrP transduces signals through its cognate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), the PTH type 1 receptor (PTHR), is largely derived from studies done with its N-terminal fragment, PTHrP1-36.
- G protein–coupled receptors are known to play a key role in many cellular signal transduction processes, including those mediating serotonergic signaling in the nervous system. Several factors have been shown to regulate the activity of these receptors, including membrane potential and the concentration of sodium ions. Whether voltage and sodium regulate the activity of serotonergic receptors is unknown. Here, we used Xenopus oocytes as an expression system to examine the effects of voltage and of sodium ions on the potency of one subtype of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptor, the 5-HT1A receptor.
- Oxytocin is a potent uterotonic agent administered to nearly all patients during childbirth in the United States. Inadequate oxytocin response can necessitate Cesarean delivery or lead to uterine atony and postpartum hemorrhage. Thus, it may be clinically useful to identify patients at risk for poor oxytocin response and develop strategies to sensitize the uterus to oxytocin. Previously, we showed that the V281M variant in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene impairs OXTR trafficking to the cell surface, leading to a decreased oxytocin response in cells.
- G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) convert external stimuli into cellular signals through heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) and β-arrestins (βarrs). In a βarr-dependent signaling pathway, βarrs link GPCRs to various downstream signaling partners, such as the Raf–mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal–regulated kinase–extracellular signal-regulated kinase cascade. Agonist-stimulated GPCR–βarr complexes have been shown to interact with C-Raf and are thought to initiate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway through simple tethering of these signaling partners.