- Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large, multisubunit proton pumps that acidify the lumen of organelles in virtually every eukaryotic cell and in specialized acid-secreting animal cells, the enzyme pumps protons into the extracellular space. In higher organisms, most of the subunits are expressed as multiple isoforms, with some enriched in specific compartments or tissues and others expressed ubiquitously. In mammals, subunit a is expressed as four isoforms (a1-4) that target the enzyme to distinct biological membranes.
- Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) is a neuropathy of the peripheral nervous system that afflicts ∼1:2500 people. The most common form of this disease (CMT1A, 1:4000) is associated with duplication of chromosome fragment 17p11.2-12, which results in a third WT PMP22 allele. In rodent models overexpressing the PMP22 (peripheral myelin protein 22) protein and in dermal fibroblasts from patients with CMT1A, PMP22 aggregates have been observed. This suggests that overexpression of PMP22 under CMT1A conditions overwhelms the endoplasmic reticulum quality control system, leading to formation of cytotoxic aggregates.
- The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel protein that is defective in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). To advance the rational design of CF therapies, it is important to elucidate how mutational defects in CFTR lead to its impairment and how pharmacological compounds interact with and alter CFTR. Here, using a helical-hairpin construct derived from CFTR's transmembrane (TM) helices 3 and 4 (TM3/4) and their intervening loop, we investigated the structural effects of a patient-derived CF-phenotypic mutation, E217G, located in the loop region of CFTR's membrane-spanning domain.
- Membrane-associated RING-CH 8 (MARCH8) is one of 11 members of the MARCH family of RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligases and down-regulates several membrane proteins (e.g. major histocompatibility complex II [MHC-II], CD86, and transferrin receptor). We recently reported that MARCH8 also targets HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins and acts as an antiviral factor. However, it remains unclear whether other family members might have antiviral functions similar to those of MARCH8. Here we show that MARCH1 and MARCH2 are MARCH family members that reduce virion incorporation of envelope glycoproteins.