- The D614G mutation in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 alters the fitness of the virus, leading to the dominant form observed in the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the molecular basis of the mechanism by which this mutation enhances fitness is not clear. Here we demonstrated by cryo-electron microscopy that the D614G mutation resulted in increased propensity of multiple receptor-binding domains (RBDs) in an upward conformation poised for host receptor binding. Multiple substates within the one RBD-up or two RBD-up conformational space were determined.
- The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 envelope protein (S2-E) is a conserved membrane protein that is important for coronavirus (CoV) assembly and budding. Here, we describe the recombinant expression and purification of S2-E in amphipol-class amphipathic polymer solutions, which solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins, but do not disrupt membranes. We found that amphipol delivery of S2-E to preformed planar bilayers results in spontaneous membrane integration and formation of viroporin cation channels.
- The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is an important target in current drug development efforts for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019. Molnupiravir is a broad-spectrum antiviral that is an orally bioavailable prodrug of the nucleoside analogue β-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC). Molnupiravir or NHC can increase G to A and C to U transition mutations in replicating coronaviruses. These increases in mutation frequencies can be linked to increases in antiviral effects; however, biochemical data of molnupiravir-induced mutagenesis have not been reported.
- Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has developed into a global pandemic since its first outbreak in the winter of 2019. An extensive investigation of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for disease control. Various recombinant monoclonal antibodies of human origin that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection have been isolated from convalescent patients and will be applied as therapies and prophylaxis. However, the need for dedicated monoclonal antibodies suitable for molecular pathology research is not fully addressed.
- The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major threat to global health. Vaccines are ideal solutions to prevent infection, but treatments are also needed for those who have contracted the virus to limit negative outcomes, when vaccines are not applicable. Viruses must cross host cell membranes during their life cycle, creating a dependency on processes involving membrane dynamics. Thus, in this study, we examined whether the synthetic machinery for glycosphingolipids, biologically active components of cell membranes, can serve as a therapeutic target to combat SARS-CoV-2.
- The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID-19 global pandemic, utilizes the host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for viral entry. However, other host factors might also play important roles in SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing new directions for antiviral treatments. GRP78 is a stress-inducible chaperone important for entry and infectivity for many viruses. Recent molecular docking analyses revealed putative interaction between GRP78 and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (SARS-2-S).