- Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is characterized by inflammation of the lungs with increasing respiratory impairment. In fatal Covid-19, lungs at autopsy have been filled with a clear liquid jelly. However, the nature of this finding has not yet been determined. The aim of the study was to demonstrate whether the lungs of fatal Covid-19 contain hyaluronan, as it is associated with inflammation and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may have the appearance of liquid jelly. Lung tissue obtained at autopsy from three deceased Covid-19 patients was processed for hyaluronan histochemistry using a direct staining method and compared with staining in normal lung tissue.
- There is a desperate need for safe and effective vaccines, therapies, and diagnostics for SARS– coronavirus 2 (CoV-2), the development of which will be aided by the discovery of potent and selective antibodies against relevant viral epitopes. Human phage display technology has revolutionized the process of identifying and optimizing antibodies, providing facile entry points for further applications. Herein, we use this technology to search for antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of CoV-2.
- Approximately 17 years after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) epidemic, the world is currently facing the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). According to the most optimistic projections, it will take more than a year to develop a vaccine, so the best short-term strategy may lie in identifying virus-specific targets for small molecule–based interventions. All coronaviruses utilize a molecular mechanism called programmed −1 ribosomal frameshift (−1 PRF) to control the relative expression of their proteins.
- The recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS–CoV-2) is the causative agent of the devastating COVID-19 lung disease pandemic. Here, we tested the inhibitory activities of the antiviral interferons of type I (IFN-α) and type III (IFN-λ) against SARS–CoV-2 and compared them with those against SARS–CoV-1, which emerged in 2003. Using two mammalian epithelial cell lines (human Calu-3 and simian Vero E6), we found that both IFNs dose-dependently inhibit SARS–CoV-2. In contrast, SARS–CoV-1 was restricted only by IFN-α in these cell lines.
- The Ebola virus (EBOV) VP40 matrix protein (eVP40) orchestrates assembly and budding of virions in part by hijacking select WW-domain–bearing host proteins via its PPxY late (L)-domain motif. Angiomotin (Amot) is a multifunctional PPxY-containing adaptor protein that regulates angiogenesis, actin dynamics, and cell migration/motility. Amot also regulates the Hippo signaling pathway via interactions with the WW-domain–containing Hippo effector protein Yes-associated protein (YAP). In this report, we demonstrate that endogenous Amot is crucial for positively regulating egress of eVP40 virus-like particles (VLPs) and for egress and spread of authentic EBOV.